• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/125

Click to flip

125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Buddha Calling the Earth to Witness,
Pala Period,
9th century,
black chlorite,
Bengal
The Assault of Mara, 8th-9th century, painted and gilded ivory, Kashmir
Seated Vajrapani, 8th-9th century, brass, Kashmir
Bodhisattva Padmapani, ca. 12th century, bronze, Nepal
Mahakala with companions, ca. 1450, ink, color, and gold on cotton, Tibet
Hevajra Mandala, ca. 15th century, colored pigments on cloth, Tibet (Hevajra in the center with consort Nairatma)
Aerial and side views of Borobudur, Sailendra Dynasty, ca. 800, Java, Indonesia
Siddartha leaving the palace, Borobudur, Sailendra Dynasty, ca. 800, Java, Indonesia
Sudhana comes to the abode of Maitreya Bodhisattva, Borobudur, Sailendra Dynasty, ca. 800, Java, Indonesia
Harihara, sandstone, pre-Angkor period, 7th century
Banteay Shrei, Angkor Period, 2nd half of 10th century, sandstone, Cambodia
Tympanum frieze, Banteay Shrei, Angkor Period, 2nd half of 10th century, sandstone, Cambodia
Angkor Vat, Angkor Period, 1st half of 12th century, sandstone, Cambodia
Churning of the Sea of Milk, Angkor Vat, Angkor Period, 1st half of 12th century, sandstone, Cambodia
The Bayon, Angkor Period, 13th century, sandstone, Cambodia
Great Bath, Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-daro
High priest, Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley civilization, limestone
Male torso, Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa, red sandstone
Dancing girl, Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-daro, copper
Female figure with headdress, Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-daro, clay
Seal with bull, Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-daro, steatite
Seal with seated yogi, Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa, steatite
Lion capital from Ashokan pillar, Mauryan period, ca. 274-237 BCE, Chunar sandstone
Bull capital from Ashokan pillar, Mauryan period, ca. 274-237 BCE, Chunar sandstone
Seated Buddha with attendants, Kushan period, ca. 124 CE, Mathura region, red sandstone
Buddha Preaching, Kushan period, ca. 182 CE, Gandhara region, grey schist (flanked by two bodhisattvas on the outside: Avalokiteshvara and Maitreya, and two Hindu deities on the inside: Surya and Indra)
The First Sermon, Gupta Period, ca. 475, Chunar sandstone, Sarnath
Cave 19, Ajanta, Gupta Period, late 5th century CE, Maharashtra (detail of stupa on the right)
Cave 17, Ajanta, Gupta Period, late 5th century CE, Maharashtra
The bodhisattva Padmapani, Cave 1, Ajanta, Gupta period, ca. 500 CE, Maharashtra
Shiva Maheshvara, Cave 1, Elephanta, Chalukyan Period, 7th century, Maharashtra
View of stupa from balcony of Cave 10, Ellora, Chalukyan Period, ca. 650, Maharashtra
Nandi Shrine (L) and Ramayana friezes (R), Cave 16 (Kailash Temple), Ellora, Rashtrakutan Period, 2nd half of 8th century, Maharashtra
Ravana Shaking Mt. Kailash, Cave 16 (Kailash Temple), Ellora, Rashtrakutan Period, 2nd half of 8th century, Maharashtra
Arjuna Rath, Pandava Raths, Pallava Period, early 7th century, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu
Arjuna Rath, Pandava Raths, Pallava Period, early 7th century, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu
Descent of the Ganges, granite, Pallava Period, 7th century, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu
Shore Temple, granite blocks, Pallava Period, 8th century, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu
Shrine, Kailash Temple, Pallava Period, early 8th century, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
Yakshi, late Maurya or early Shunga period, sandstone, Madhya Pradesh
Caitya hall, Bhaja, Shunga period, ca. 1st century BCE, Maharashtra
Surya and Indra, façade of Vihara 19, Bhaja, Shunga period, ca. 1st century BCE, Maharashtra
Surya and Indra, façade of Vihara 19, Bhaja, Shunga period, ca. 1st century BCE, Maharashtra
Great Stupa, Sanchi, Shunga and early Andhra periods, 3rd century BCE-early 1st century CE, Madhya Pradesh
Yakshi, torana of Great Stupa, Sanchi, early Andhra period, 1st century CE, Madhya Pradesh
Vessantara Jataka, torana of Great Stupa, Sanchi, early Andhra period, 1st century CE, Madhya Pradesh
Scene of devotion, torana of Great Stupa, Sanchi, early Andhra period, 1st century CE, Madhya Pradesh
Buddha taming the maddened elephant, from the railing of the Amaravati stupa, Andhra period, late 2nd century CE, Andhra Pradesh
Gold coin from the reign of King Kanishka I L: front side (image of King Kanishka I) R: back side (image of Buddha) Kushan period, 2nd century CE
•Highly organized politically and socially not just a collection of dwellings
•Sites found in 1865 accidentally while building a railroad
•Built on mounds to prevent flooding
•35,000 to 40,000 people resided in the city
•Urban civilization
oGold, Jade, copper form Afghanistan and turquoise from India
oFarmers (wheat, barley, sesame, melon, dates, pea greens, ect)
oAnimal husbandry (dogs, cats, buffalo, ect)
Mohenjo-Daro
o Highly developed sewage systems
o 8ft deep
o 39ft long
o 23ft wide
o May have kept aquatic reptiles
o Citizens bathed
Great Bath
used as an ornamental building material (red with iron oxide)
• small
• simplified faces and bodys
• distorted
Terracotta
(soft powdery soapstone)
• Carved with sharp tools, baked to hardened
• Animals to represent clans and religions
• Bulls important in agricultural
• Cows represent fertility
• Inscriptions are unable to be deciphered
• Used during trade
• 1or 2 inches squares
Steatite
“noble one” – Northwest India
Aryans
• Songs and hymns passed down orally until finally written down
Vedas
• Priests made offerings to the gods by throwing grain or butter into a fire to send them to the gods (fire offerings)
Vedic
• type of textbook for the Brahmans (priests) for the ceremonies to carry out fire offerings
Brahmanas
• priests who were thought to have sway with gods
Brahamans
• Sixty-six new religions developed in this period based on Vedic social hierarchy (priests above everyone else, closest to gods)
• Priests asked gods for favors or made wishes, gave fire offerings to please the gods
• Questioned the nature of being, how to reunite the people with the universe
Upanishadic
• Actions in current life time effect the next life
• Looking beyond lust and jealousy affects karma positively, theft and murder affects it negatively
• How morality impacts rebirth
o Karma
• The cycle of death and rebirth to which life in the material world is bound
o Samsara
• Interrelated karma and samsara
• World is imagery, world is an illusion
• The supernatural power wielded by gods and demons to produce illusions
• The illusion or appearance of the phenomenal world
o Maya
religious figures- great victory
o A grate teacher who has attained liberation from Karma
•“victors” – obtain enlightenment
o Enlightenment frees soul from material things
o Jinas were teachers rather than deity, and were the only people to not need teachers
o Did not farm so as not to harm life (worms, ants, ect)
o Became merchants
• Jina
o Founder of Jainism
o Hostarity and penance
Mahavira
• The enlightened one
o Born a prince in Lumeni
o Physically examined as a baby and found to have 32 signs of a great man
• bump on his head
• web hands and feet
 Signs meant he would either be a nomadic beggar or would stay home and be a good king
• Shakymuni Buddha/Siddartha Gautama (Great Hero)
o Birth
oRenunciation of the princely life
o Meditation in the forest
o The assault of Mara
o Enlightenment under the bodhi tree
o Preaching at Sarnath
o The miracle of Shravasti
o The parinirvana
• Eight events of the Buddha’s life
• all life is suffering
• the origin of suffering is attachment
• the end of suffering is attainable
• the means of ending suffering is through the eightfold path
o 4 noble truths
• right view, right intention, tight speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right contemplation
 eightfold path
• Male nature spirit in Buddhism
incorporated in to Hindu, Janism, and Buddhism mythology
Yaksha
• Female nature spirit in Buddhism
Hindu, Janism, and Buddhism mythology
Yakshi
• Type of death which is to be envied, where you die and are not reborn again
• Good thing
o To be released permanently not to be released again
Parinirvana
• Relics
o Traces of the Buddha
o Pearls, gold, crystal, teeth or bones of the Buddha
• distributed trough out the 8 kingdoms
Stupa
• the remains of important monks can be berried in the Stupa
• brick covers the original earth and mound
• 84000 Stupas built though out the empire
is the big opening in the gate to the stupa
• torana
is the small railed platform at the top of a stupa
• harmika
• very top three umbrellas , three jewels of Buddha
chattra
• Buddha
• Buddha’s law/teaching (dharma)
• Monastic community (samgha)
o Three jewels of Buddhism:
• Carved backward into the rock
• More finished
• Round chamber
o Holds a round stupa
• Carved from the rock
• Path around the stupa and wall of the circle chamber
 Walk around the stupa is a from of worship
• Circumambulation
Caitya hall
• Path around the stupa and wall of the circle chamber
 Walk around the stupa is a from of worship
• Circumambulation
o On the walls
o Man and woman
o 6 pairs
o over life size
o generalized representation of human figures
• Mithuna
• one of the most famous Buddhist monastery
Vihara 19
sun god, in a chariot
• Surya
god of thunder, on an elephant
• Indra
similar to the railing surrounding the stupa
• Harmika
umbrella at top of stupa represents the 3 jewels of Buddha
• Chattra
• Stories of the Buddha’s previous life times
Jataka tale
images of the Buddha
Iconic representation
• Stay in the world to help others reach enlightenment
Bodhisattva
 Nature deities
 Signify Heavenly realm
• Apsaras
• Hindu deity, the creator of the universe
• Has faces all around his head, all-knowing
Brahma
• Hindu deity, the preserver of the universe
• Could change into different forms in order to save the universe
Vishnu
• Hindu deity, the destroyer of the universe, who also brings new life in the wake of destruction
o Destroyer and rejuvenator
Shiva
(“symbol”), disagreement between Brahma and Vishnu about who was greater and Brahma created a pillar of flame so that whoever could reach the top would win, but neither could do so because the pillar of fire was limitless
• Lingam
• Said to be the second consort or wife of Shiva
• Said to have formed a lingam out of a fistful of sand
• Parvati
o The dancing Shiva
o Lord of the dance
o His destructive aspect
o Paving the way for new life
o 6 arms
• Nataraja
• Nature goddess
• Warrior goddess to kill the Bull-Demon
• Durga killing the Bull-Demon, rock-cut relief, Pallava Period, 7th century
• Durga uses bow and arrow to kill a half-man, half-bull demon
• Demon was able to change between man and bull
Durga
southern Indian type of tower, like a set of nesting dolls, smaller into larger over and over again, specific layerso
What marks the Shrine
o Most sacred sight
o Multiple layers
o Repetition of components
shikara
porch used to gatherings, sometimes for dancing, etc.
• In fount of the Shrine
Mandapa
• Already a site that the Buddha was known to pass through even before it became a university and place of study
Nalanda
– original model is carved out of wax and a mold is made for many of the smaller sculptures
lost-wax casting
• Cut through imagery and illusions to help one to enlightenment and help sever one from attachments to illusions of the world
• Has prongs at each end
Vajra
– type of Buddhism which must be shown, suggests secrecy
• Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhist ritual of uttering Buddhist prayers and incantations while making specific hand gestures and trying to imagine the Buddhist deity in the mind’s eye
• Tantric Buddhism
bringing 3 practices together
• Tantra
o Rolled up image
o On to cotton fabric
o Hung in displayed in Buddhist temples for rituals
o When not in use it is rolled up for storage
o Symmetry and organization
o Can be commissioned for dedication for a sick person, merit
• Thangka
o looking at the aerial view can see the shape of the structure
o carved images of the Buddha
o 72 stupas
o 3 diminution space
mandala
Borobudur
o Mt. Sumeru/Mt. Meru
o Story’s Who searched for enlightenment
o 52 teachers
Gandavyuh- Sudhana
the god-king, in this case the Buddha on earth
Devaraja
• Ruled till 850 CE, I identified himself with Shiva. Either Jaya II or his immediate descendants created the concept of the temple-mountain the temple or temple complex standing on a natural or constructed elevation, in which the divinity of the king might be said to dwell and which eventually became his mortuary shrine.
King Jayavarman II
• Identified with Vishnu rather than Shiva. He built Angkor Vat as his temple-mountain several miles south of Angkor proper
King Suryavarman II
• Adopted Buddhism, identifying himself with Lokeshvara.
King Jayavarman VII
• Combine attributes of Shiva and Vishnu
• Cambodian style facial features
Harihara
3 curves like a “s”
• Tribhanga
• King J II
• Temple built on a platform
• Material was floated down the river to building sight
• A city built within a city
• 495
• covered balconies
Angkor
Parashurameshvara Temple, ca. 700 CE, chlorite, Orissa
Kandarya Mahadeva Temple, ca. 1000, sandstone, Madhya Pradesh
Kandarya Mahadeva Temple, ca. 1000, sandstone, Madhya Pradesh
Sun Temple (Surya Deul), chlorite, ca. 1240, Orissa
Ceiling frieze of celestial dancers, Tejpala’s Temple, 1232, white marble, Mount Abu, Rajasthan
L’al and Sanwlah, Akbar Viewing a Wild Elephant (Captured near Malwa in 1564), from the Akbar Nama, Mughal Period, ca. 1600, ink and color on paper
Tuti-Nama (Tales of a Parrot): The Parrot Addresses Khojasta at the Beginning of the Seventh Night, Mughal Period, 16th century, color and gold on paper
Balchan, The Dying Inayat Khan, Mughal Period, early 17th century, ink and light color on paper
Akura Drives Krishna and Belarama to Mathura, Rajput, 16th century, ink and color on paper (translation: “Akura, having left the women weeping, rose up and drove the chariot.”)
Poems of Spring, from the Vasanta Vilasa, Rajput, mid 16th century, color on cotton cloth
A Young, Angry Heroine (Adhira Nayaka), from a Rasamanjari, Rajput, early 17th century, color on paper (partial translation: “You are expert in flirtation; you are charming; you are my lord and wonderful in your youthful handsomeness.”)