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118 Cards in this Set

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Line
the path left by a moving point. it may vary in length, width or direction, and have a variety of expressive characteristics
Aesthetics
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty
Form
The total physical characteristics of an art object
Implied Line
A line suggested to the eye as it connects points or broken lines in a composition
Shape
A flat 2-dimensional area or plane; an area enclosed by a line or defined by a color or texture
Geometric Shape
A shape that is hard, rigid, and regular, often related to man-made objects
Organic Shape
A shape that is soft, relaxed, curvilinear, and irregular in form, common in nature
Figure
A shape on the picture plane, usually designated as positive
Ground
The background area around the figure, usually seen as negative space
Reversal of figure and ground
A shift in awareness of positive and negative shapes
Hue
The name of a color
Value
The relative lightness or darkness of a color
Intensity
The purity of a hue relative to bright or dull
Primary colors
Pigment: red, yellow, blue
Light: red, green, blue
Primary colors cannot be produced by mixing other colors
Warm Colors
The colors on the red-orange side of the color wheel are visually warm.
Cool colors
The colors on the blue-green side of the color wheel are visually cool. They usually appear to recede
Local Color
In painting, reporducting the actual color of an object
Achromatic
Without hue; black, white, gray
Monochromatic
Variations on a single hue
analogous
hues adjacent to one another on the color wheel
complementary
hues opposite one another on the color wheel
polychromatic
having many hues
persepective
any method of representing the appearance of 30d objects in space on a 2-d surface. Includes position size and overlap
Linear persepective
a system developed during the italian renaissance which is based on the idea that parallel lines or edges appear to converge, and objects appear to grow smaller as they recede into the distance.
vantage point
position from which the viewer looks at an object
vanishing point
in linear persepective, the point on the horizon line at which lines or edges that are parallel appear to converge
atmospheric persepective
creating the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere on distant objects
isometric perspective
a system in which paralell lines are parallel, but all angles are drawn to a standard
Texture
the tactile qualities of surfaces, or the visual representation of such surface qualities.
scale
the size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people , or its environment or format
proportion
the size relationship of part to a whole and to one another
balance
an arragenemtn of parts achieving a state of equilibrium between opposing forces. major types are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial. forms may be organized along an axis, an actual or implied line in the composition
rhythm
the regular or ordered repetition of elements within a design
unity
the appearance of simliarity, consistency, or oneness. parts conform to the whole
contrast
interaction of opposites for interest and emphasis
focal point
the visual center of interest or point of major emphasis
content
meaning, contained and communicated by form
style
a consistent and characteristic handling of media, elements of form, and principles of design that make a work of art identificable as the product of a particular person, group, historic period, or place
medium
a particular material along with its accompanying technique. a specific type of artistic technique or means of expression determined by the use of specific materials. also, in paint, the fluid in which pigment is suspended
motif
a subject for development or treatment in art. a principal ideal or feature
realism
representational art in which the artist attempts to depict things as closely as possible according to the way the eye seems them. Realism in subject and content relates to depictions of images that are not idealized
watercolor
the application of pigments combined with gun arabic in a solution of water to white paper
tempera
water based paint with egg yolk, milk, glue, or egg and oil emulsion as a binder. used frequently during the early italian renaissance. egg tempera colors are bright and durable. less flexible than oil paints. requires a rigid support such as board or masonite
fresco
a mural technique. true fresco or buon fresco is done with water base paint applied to a damp lime plaster surface. must be applied exactly and quickly. permanent. secco fresco is tempera paint applied to dry plaster walls. less stable than true fresco
oil
pigments with an oil usually linseed oil, binder, thinned with turpentine. very fliexible, re-workable slow-drying. Applied to rigied or flexible supports. thick or thin application is possible. blends smoothly. colors rich and durable
representational art
art which has recognizable subject matter. it depicts the appearance of things
naturalism
a style of represenational art that presents a close approximation of optical appearances
foreshortening
the represenation of the long axis of an object or figure by contracting its lines so as to produce an illusion of projectino or extension in space
chiaroscuro
the gradations of light and dark in 2-d imagery, especially in those works in which forms are determined by the meeting of lighter and darker tones
icon
an image or symbolic represenation
iconography
the visual images of symbols used by a given culture together with the history and tradition of these symbolds and how they have been used and interpreted. a study of the symbolic or religious meaning of objects, persons, and even decpicted in art.
pieta
italian word for pity, used to describe depiction of mary holding the lifeless body of christ and mourning over him
handscroll
a long, narrow horizontal painting/text of a size intended for individual use. common in chinese and japanese art
crewel work
coarse, boldly designed embroidery using worsted yarns
ka
in ancient egypt, one element of the immportal human soul
sarcophagus
an elaborate coffin of gold-covered wood or carved stone
true pyramid
a structure with a square base and sides that slope upward to meet at an apex
relief
sculpture in which 3-d forms project from the flat background of which they are a part
high relief
sculpture in which at least one-half of the natural circumference of the modeled form projects from the surrounding surface
low relief
sculpture in which the projection from the surrounding surface is slight and no part of the modeled form is undercut
freestanding or int the round sculpture
fully 3-d forms
additive process
a process where materials such as clay or wax are modeled into a final form
subtractive process
a process where materials such as wood or stone are cut or carved away to create sculptural forms
substitution process
a process where one material such as bronze is substituted for another, such as wax, with the aid of a mold
constructive process
a process where preexisting objects are brought together making a new form. Also the assembling of materials such as steel or plastic into sculputral forms
bodhisattva
a deity that is far advanced in the long process of transforming itself into a buddha. while seeking enlightenment, bodhisattvas help others attain salvation
buddha
shakyamuni buddha siddhartha gautama, prince of shakya clan. a buddha is not a god but is one who is fully enlightened
triptych
a picture made up of three hinged panels, the outer anels fold to cover the center panel
program
the conceptual basis of a work; the principal theme or storyline
tenebroso
painting in the dark manner a technique of caravaggio
cromlech
a circle of monoliths
ziggurat
a roughly pyramidal structure, built in ancient mesopotamia, consisting of stages, each succeeding stage is stepped back from the one beneath
hypostyle hall
a hall with a roof supported by columns, the colonaded hall of an egyptian pylon temple
pylong
the monumental entrance of an egyptian temple
post and beam
construction using vertical posts spanned by a horizontal beam or lintel
order
in classical architecture, a style represented by a characteristic design of the column and its entablature
doric
has no base, a fluted, tapered shaft, a simple two-part capital
ionic
has a circular or polygonal base, a fluted, tapered shaft, and a capital with volutes connected by a horizontal band
corinthian
the elaborate capital is shaped like an inverted bell and is decorated with acanthus leaves with small volutes at the top
pediment
the triangular space at the end of a building, sometimes filled with sculpture
portico
a porch with a roof supported by columns, an entrance porch
colonnade
a row of columns usually spanned or connected by beams
capital
the upper part of a column serving as a trasition from the shaft to the lintel
volute
a spiral scroll like form seen on the green ionic capital
dome
an evenly curved vault on a circular, elliptical or polygonal base
drum
supporting vertical wall for a dome
oculus
a circular opening in a wall or at the apex of a dome
mosque
a building dedicated to communal muslim worship
mihrab
a recess or niche that distinguishes the wall oriented toward mecca
minaret
a tall slender twoer on the exterior of a mosque from which believers are called to prayer
qibla
the wall of the mosque orient toward mecca
horseshoe arch
an arch with a rounded horseshoe shape, standard in wester islamic architecture
byzantine art
styles of painting, design, and architecture developed from the 5th c. CE in characterized in architecture by round arches, massive domes, and extensive use of mosaic, characterized in painting by formal design, frontal and stylized figures, and rich use of color, especially gold, in generally religious subejct matter
roof comb
in a mayan building, a masonry wall along the apex of a roof, built above the level of the roof proper
kiva
the room in a native american pueblo used for community gatherings and rituals
pagoda
a heavily decorated buddhist temple in the form of a tower built with successively small, repeated stories, each estory is usually marked by an elaborate projecting roof
gothic style
primarily an architectural style that prevailed in western europe from the 12th through the 15th centuries, chracterized by the pointed arch, the rib vault, and the flying buttress
basilica
an early church design based the roman model
aisles
the portion of a church flanking the nave
apse
a large semicircular or polygonal niche protruding from the end wall of an axial building such as a basilica, also the altar end of a christian church
cruciform
in the shape of a cross, as in the ground plan of a church
buttress
a support usually exterior for a wall arch or vault that opposes the lateral forces of these structures
clerestory
the portion of the cathedral walls above the aisle roofs, consisting of tall windows reaching the roof above
crossing
the part of a cross-shaped church where the nave and transpect intersect
curtain wall
a non load bearing wall usually contained much glass as in gothic cathedrals or modern skyscrapers
flying buttress
a strut or segment of an arch carrying the thrust of a vault to a vertical pier position away from the main portion of the building used in many gothic cathedrals
gothic arch
pointed arch, ogival
lantern
a cylindrical, turret like structure situated on top of a dome, with windows that allow light in the space below
nave
the central part of the church between the west entrance and the choir, separated from the aisles by piers
portal
monumental door or entry
rib vault
a vault supported by masonry ribs
rose window
the large, round window usually found in the west facade or transept ends of a gothic cathedral
renaissance
literally rebirth, term applied to the art, architecture, learning and culture of 15th and 16th century italy
canon
a rule or set of principles or standards, most commonly for the forms or proportions of architecture or the human figure in art
heraldic arrangement
a design having elements that are repeated in reverse or "mirrored"
hieratic or hierarchic proportions
the arranging of girues or symbols in art according to the rank or authority of the persons represented, also, termining the size of figures according to rank rather than according to perspective
registers
in a painting or relief sculpture, separate bands o divisions created by the use of multiple groundlines
mosaic
a method of creating designs with small colored stone or glass pieces which are affixed to a cement surface