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89 Cards in this Set

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Prana
Sanskrit
"Divine Breath" of physical/spiritual health in harmony
Linga
An-iconic representation of Shiva
Square bottom, octagonal middle, cylindrical top
No sexual connections
Terracotta
Low temperature fired clay
Orange color
More durable than regular clay
Dravidian
People of Harappan civilization
Dark skinned
Aryan
People that came over Caucus Mtns
Lighter skin
Took over at the end of Dravidians
Veda
Aryan's sacred literature
Written evidence of what happened/how society ended
Rig Veda (1500-1000 BCE, oldest religious text, 1st book of Vedas)
Upanishads (later)
Asceticism
Meditation, no eating, etc.
Practice of Ascetics
Ascetics
Holy man
Renounces everything worldly
Meditates constantly
Dharma
Teachings of the Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama
Another name for the Historical Buddha
Karma
What you put into the universe comes back to you
Sutra
Teaching/scripture
Maya
Mother of the Historical Buddha
Buddha born out of her side
Samsara
Cycle of birth, death, rebirth
Parinirvana
Depiction of the Buddha's death/entrance to nirvana
Mara
God of Chaos
Distracts ppl from reaching enlightenment
Sent army/daughter to distract Buddha from enlightenment
Nirvana
End of Samsara
Reaching of enlightenment
What you strive for in Buddhism "the Ultimate Place"
Shakyamuni
Another name for the Buddha
Mandorla
Circular thing depicted behind the Buddha's head
Almost like a halo
Shows importance
Ushnisha
Bump (looks like hair in a bun) on top of head
Shows importance
On the Buddha as well as deities
Mudras
Hand positions that mean several different things; meditation, preaching, etc.
Urna
Spot in the middle of the forehead
"Third eye"
Importance/deity
Bodhi Tree
Aniconic reference to the Buddha
Where Buddha sat when he reached enlightenment
Jataka
Story based on the Buddha's past lives
Theravada
Branch of Buddhism
Lesser vehicle/path
Salvation only through joining the monastic order/becoming a monk
Arhat
Monks who achieved enlightenment by following Buddha's teachings
Maitraya
Buddha of the Future
Avalokitesvara
Bodhisattva of compassion
Can hear any cry for help around the world
I.E. Help if drowning
Mahayana
Sect of Buddhism
Salvation possible for all beings, can come quickly
Must live well; don't have to be a monk
Bodhisattva is the ideal
Bodhisattva
Male/femal
Person dedicated to helping ppl become enlightened
Already reached enlightenment, stayed to help others
Sanchi
One of the largest Stupa's of Buddhism
Karli
Another large Stupa of Buddhism
Amaravati
Relief style of art, almost complete sculpture
Deep relief
Ashoka
1st King of Maurayan Dynasty
Unified Maurayan's
Militaristic until after a bad war, became very peaceful
Announced Buddhism as official religion
Relic
Remains/belongings of a holy person
Usually put in some sort of reliquary and worshipped
Reliquary
Box that hold relics of holy ppl
Stupa
Burial ground that hold relics of holy ppl in reliquarys
Places of worship
Circumambulation
Act of moving around a sacred object (Stupa)
Clockwise direction
Chaitya [Hall]
Holy place of worship
Chaitya Form
Horse shoe shaped
Yaksha/Yakshi
-a is male, -i is female
Local deities that are protectors of wealth, crops, fertility, etc.
Bring good fortune, serves Buddha
Aniconic
Using a symbol or something of the like to represent a person
Don't represent ppl as ppl
Torana
Gateway lining a stupa
Tribhanga
Triple bend pose (S Shape)
Hips/shoulders/arm curve
Mithuna
Loving couples depicted together
Emblems of fertility, growth, abundance, prosperity
Exaggerated hips/breasts on women
Very supple; prana
Kanishka
Great ruler of Kushan period
Sometimes referred to as "second Ashoka"
Ruled from 120-162 CE
Loved Buddhism
Kushans
People of the Kushan period
Bamiyan
Place of extremely large Buddha statues in valley of Afghanistan
Holy place of worship many pilgrimage to
Bamiyan Buddha's
Large Buddha statues that were blown up by the Taliban in 2001
Iconoclasm
Destruction of icons
Taliban
Government of Afghanistan
Blew up Bamiyan Buddhas
Mathuran
Red sandstone
Buddha image developed from Indian origins: yakshi/a figures and from Kushan ruler portraits
Eastern part of Kushan Empire
Gandharan
Western portion of Kushan Empire
Greco-Roman influences
Grey schist/stone
Guptas
People of Gupta period
Ajanta Caves
Large caves that were sculpted from top to bottom
Paintings inside
One of the largest cave complexes
Apsaras
Beings that accompany deities in portraits, etc.
Flying figures
Used to show/give respect to deities
Vihara
Monestary complex monks live in
Carved into the cave at Ajanta
Nagaraja
Nature spirit in charge of protecting water sources
Depicted with snakes
"Snake Prince"
Royalty
Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro
Indus Valley/Harappan Period
Used for ritual bathing/public area
Covered with bitamin (waterproof tar)
High Priest of Mohenjo-daro
Indus Valley/Harappan Period
7 inches tall
White steatite
Thought to represent high rank/caste because of jewelry on head
Trefoil design on clothing
Squinty eyes suggest meditation
Seal with Deity Standing in a Pipal Tree and Large Ram
Indus Valley/Harappan Period
Human figure, 3 faces for different directions
Seated nude, cross legged arms extended
Bull horns above head depict power & leadership
Pipal leaves are the holy tree leaves, connected to the Buddha
Dancing Girl from Mohenjo-daro
Indus Valley/Harappan Period
5.5 inches tall
Copper
Bangles up entire arm
Naturalstic/represents real live Dravidian facial features
Lomas Rishi Cave Facade
Mauryan Period
Mimics lotus petal, indicated holyness
Horse shoe shaped
Mimics wooden structure, although made of stone
Rounded long archway interior
Lion Capital from Sarnath
Mauryan Period
Capital = Rests on columns
3 lions based on an upside down lotus flower
Not religious statue
Flower references the Buddha
Over 7ft tall
Represents Church & state combined
Yaksha from Parkham
Mauryan Period
Represents local deities
Brings good fortunes
Serves Buddha
This one looks over a field of possibly crops or someone's home at one time
Bharhut Stupa Railing and Torana
Sunga Period
Torana is a gateway lining a Stupa
Destroyed for bricks
Railing & torana now in a museum
Relief sculpture that depict stories
Great Monkey Jataka
Sunga Period
Buddha's past life as Monkey King
Monkey's feed off Mango tree, best fruit they've ever had
Buddha as Monkey King tells the monkey's to not let them go downstream or hunters will get the fruit and destroy the tree
Happens on accident
Hunters come, monkey king makes a bridge for monkey's to swim across & sacrifices himself
Breaks back at the end from evil monkey
Chaitya Hall at Bhaja
Sunga Period
Pillars, wooden crossbeams
Simple design
Larger than most other caves
Large hallway with horseshoe shape at the end
Reliquary/relic at the end for ppl to worship
Great Stupa at Sanchi
Andhra Period
Made of brick & earth
Enlarged, renovated in 50-25 BCE
Torana, railing, second story added at renovation
Added complex for monk's to live
One of the largest most popular Stupa's for people to worship at
Great Stupa at Sanchi East Torana
Andhra Period
Intricately carved gates of relief sculpture
4 toranas, east most popular
3 parts, above entrance
Yakshi, Great Stupa at Sanchi, East Torana
Andhra Period
Represents beauty, sophistication
Enlarged breasts and hips
Freed from stone, 3 dimensional
Facade of Chaitya Hall at Karli
Andhra Period
Lots of detailed elaborate carvings
Lion column out front
Wooden like structures, made of stone
Nave of Chaitya Hall at Karli
Andhra Period
Interior: Pillars, upside down lotus flowers
Hallway has an alter at the end of the nave
Intricate columns
Elephant capitals: 4 figures
The Great Departure
Kushan Period
Depiction of Buddha giving up his worldly things & prince status of his family's palace to go learn about the world
Depicted on a horse, God's help to sneak him/carry him out
Moment of Enlightenment
Kushan Period
Buddha sitting under Bodhi Tree
Mara sends chaos to try & tempt him from enlightenment
Sends his demons & daughter
Death of the Buddha Shakyamuni (Attributed to Mincho)
Muromachi Period
Buddha dies and goes to nirvana
Parinirvana
"Disciples" sad that he is gone
Tamamushi Shrine, "Hungry Tigress Jataka"
Asuka Period
Buddha as a tiger master in past life
Bodhisattva in this story
Compassionate; Hungry tigress about to eat cubs so he gives his lives to save the tigress from eating her cubs
Seated Maitreya
6-7th Century Korea
Buddha of the future
Western Pure Land
China 685-715 CE
Amitabha (Buddha of infinite light) represented in center of painting
Talk to Amitabha if you want to go to "Western Land"
Sect of Buddhism where pure land is the primary object of devotion
Standing Maitreya
Kushan Period
Mathura style sculpture
Large halo around head, adapted from the Persians
Fleshy, supple, robust body of prana
Holding a flask of immortality
Standing Buddha
Kushan Period
Gandhara style sculpture
Grey stone, heavy Greco-Roman influence
Stylized curly hair
Flat nose, toga
Neutral facial expressions
Ushnisha more bun like
Maya Giving Birth to the Buddha
Kushan Period
Gandhara style sculpture
Shows Buddha coming out of the side
Faces more individualized
Maya depicted similar to a Yakshi
Deep relief
Bamiyan Buddha's
Kushan Period
Large Buddhist statues
Place of worship
In valley of Bamiyan hills in
Afghanistan
Blown up by Taliban
Standing Mathuran Buddha
Gupta Period
String-like drapery indicating folds
Halo enlarged/decorated
Calmness in the structure
Buddha Preaching First Sermon from Sarnath
Gupta Period
Mudra in sermon position
Large halo behind head
Yogic position
Seated on a wheel: deer figures because first speech given in Deer Park
Seated on lotus flower
View of Facade of Cave 19 Ajanta
Gupta Period
Huge cave complex
Buddhist caves earlier, more added at a later time
4 Chaitya Halls, 25 Viharas
Replicate wooden structures
Cave 19 Chaitya Hall with Stupa at Ajanta
Gupta Period
Intricately carved columns
Alter at the end
Bodhisattva Padmapani Ajanta Cave 1
Gupta period
Wall painting
Padmapani = Lotus in hand
Prepare plaster coating for wall to be paintable, then add limestone, outline, then paint
Downcast eyes, nose
Relates to lotus flowers
Shading to make it lifelike
What did you learn at the art exhibit?
Some artists had to have their own paper made for wood block prints to handle the amount of paint they used, etc.
Japanese "tabloids" first used the textbox