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218 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. The Principles of War
a. Selection and Maintenance of the Aim
b. Maintenance of Morale
c. Offensive Action
d. Security
e. Surprise
f. Concentration of Force
g. Economy of Effort
h. Flexibility
i. Cooperation
j. Administration
Manoeuvre Warfare Canadian army seeks manoeuvrist approach to defeat
the enemy by shattering
his moral and physical cohesion, his ability to fight as
an effective coordinated whole, rather than by destroying him physically
through incremental attrition
3. The Canadian army approach to operations is dynamic and
multidimensional. It requires a balance between mass, time and space. By speed of action we attempt to
pre-empt enemy plans, dislocate enemy forces, disrupt his movement and his means of command and control.
a. Where possible, existing weak points are exploited. Failing that, they
must be created. Weak points may be physical, for example, an undefended boundary : they may also be less tangible, such as a vulnerability in passage of information. They are often produced when an enemy
is over-extended or suffering the effects of a high tempo of operations. Exploiting weak points requires agility, flexibility and anticipation, and low level freedom of action.
searching and probing with reconnaissance elements to find gaps will help
to “pull” combat power towards weakness
tactical battles are not an end in themselves, but
only a building block within the framework of a larger campaign
An army group is normally organized as a combined command to direct the operations of two or more
In a Canadian context, an army is more likely to be established to serve as a national command when
one or more corps are fielded.
The corps is the principal combat formation. Its organization varies depending upon its mission. The corps consists of a
a variable number of divisions and other combat, combat support and combat service support formations or units.
i. Division. Unlike higher formations, they normally have fixed all-arms organization based on their mission, although they may have additional resources grouped with them. Operations involving divisions are usually conducted by a corps. The Canadian Army may field the following types of divisions:
1. independent division,
2. mechanized division, and
3. armoured division
j. Independent Division. It is formed from corps resources and is essentially a mechanized division suitably reinforced to
handle its independent mission.
k. Mechanized Division. The mechanized division may consist of three mechanized brigades or two mechanized brigades and an armoured brigade, with divisional troops. It is capable of
covering extended frontages and relatively deep areas of responsibility, and of operating widely dispersed.
l. Armoured Division. The armoured division consists of two armoured brigades, one mechanized brigade and divisional troops. The inherent mobility, firepower and armoured protection of the formation enable it to dominate a large part of the battle area. The division is ideally structured to
conduct aggressive action in all types of operations, particularly in conjunction with mechanized divisions.
m. Brigades and Brigade Groups. Brigades and brigade groups are the basic land force formations. They normally have fixed organizations based on their role or mission. Brigades are a grouping of combat arms with little if any integral combat support arms or combat service support elements. The Canadian Army may field the following types of brigade groups or brigades:
1. mechanized brigade group,
2. mechanized brigade, and
3. armoured brigade.
n. Mechanized Brigade Group. This formation is a corps resource. It contains a mixture of manoeuvre units with a predominance of mechanized infantry with integral combat support and combat service support elements. It is capable of performing a variety of tasks including
blocking, counter-attack and rear area security.
o. Mechanized Brigade. This formation contains a mixture of manoeuvre units with a predominance of mechanized infantry. Combat support and combat service support elements are provided by
6. To produce the desired effect on the enemy, combat power is applied through an inherent requirement to find the enemy in combination with the two dynamic forces of fixing and striking him. Armies pre-empt, dislocate and disrupt by fixing and striking the enemy, both on the physical and moral planes of conflict.

a. Pre-emption.
To pre-empt the enemy is to seize an opportunity, often fleeting, before he does, in order to deny him an advantageous course of action.
b. Dislocation.
To dislocate the enemy is to deny him the ability to bring his strength to bear.
c. Disruption.
To disrupt is to rupture the integrity of the enemy's combat power and to reduce it to less than its constituent parts.
d. Together with the use of the two dynamic forces is the need to apply the tenets of tempo, synchronization and main effort.

1. Tempo.
The commander controls the tempo of operations by speeding up, slowing down, or changing the type of activity.
2. Main effort. The commander designates a main effort to provide a focus for the actions of his subordinates. The identification of main effort
encourages initiative while maintaining cohesion and unity of effort.
3. Synchronization. The commander uses synchronization to
focus his resources and activities to produce maximum combat power at the decisive time and place
7. Combat Functions. The army defines six combat functions: command, information operations, manoeuvre, firepower, protection and sustainment.
Commanders seek to integrate these functions and apply overwhelming combat power against the enemy where and when it is most beneficial.
Command. Command is the execution
of military authority by a designated commander for the planning, direction, coordination and control of military forces.
b. Information Operations. Information operations integrate all aspects of information to ___________ ,with the goal of dominating the enemy at the right time, the right place and with the right weapons and resources
support and enhance the other combat functions,
e. Manoeuvre. Manoeuvre is the employment of forces through movement in combination with speed , firepower, or fire potential, to achieve
a position of advantage in respect to the enemy in order to achieve the mission.
f. The freedom of manoeuvre of friendly forces encompasses mobility. Mobility tasks include
overcoming natural and man-made obstacles, improving existing lines of communication and other routes or building new ones, and identifying routes around or through areas contaminated by Nuclear, Biological and Chemical agents, mines or unexploded ordinance.
g. Firepower. Firepower, integrated with manoeuvre or independent of it, is used to destroy, neutralize and suppress and demoralize the enemy. Firepower should be viewed
as a joint concept as it includes conventional land, air and maritime delivered munitions
Fire power encompasses
the collective and coordinated use of Target Acquisition data from all sources, direct and indirect fire weapons, armed aircraft of all types, and other lethal and nonlethal means against air, ground and sea targets.
h. Protection. Protection encompasses those measures a force takes to remain
viable and functional by protecting itself from the effects of an enemy weapon systems and natural occurrences
Protection can be enhanced by the active measures suh as
firepower, manoeuvre, air defence and counter-mobility measures to fix the enemy and, if necessary, destroy him before he can attack effectively.
Passive Protection measures include hardening of facilities and .
fortification of battle positions, protection of civilians and civilian infrastructures, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical defensive measures, as well as camouflage, concealment and non-electronic deception. It also includes actions to reduce fratricide
i. Protection is enhanced through efforts to limit non-combat losses, by providing
basic health needs and welfare facilities, to preserve cohesion and morale as part of sustainment.
j. Sustainment. Sustainment is achieved through the balance of military administration and
civilian support through host nation support, other governmental departments and agencies, and civilian contractors.
k. Sustainment of forces is a function of all levels: strategic, operational and tactical. Within the tactical level of sustainment is the integral support, which employs
the echelon system, close support and general support.
. It is the continuity of the sustainment effort from the strategic through to the tactical level which provides the tactical commander
with the resources allowing his freedom of action.
The Battlefield Framework refers to
These equate respectively to Area of Operations (which will be designated for a commander), Area of Interest (which he will then decide for himself) and Area of Influence (which will be a function of his eventual plan and the allocated resources).
b. Area of Operations. The purpose of allocating an area of operations to a subordinate is to define the geographical limits, a volume of space, within which he may conduct operations. Within these limits, a commander has the authority
to conduct operations, coordinate fire, control movement, and develop and maintain installations
Deep, close and rear operations are conducted within the area of operations specific to each level of command. For any one level of command,
areas of operations will never overlap. Conversely, in dispersed operations they may not be adjacent.
c. Area of Interest. The purpose of defining an area of interest is to identify and monitor factors, including
enemy activities, which may influence the outcome of the current and anticipated missions, beyond the area of operations
d. Area of Influence. The area of influence is the physical volume of space that expands, contracts and moves according to a formation or unit's current ability to acquire or engage the enemy. It will be determined by
the reach of organic systems, or those temporarily under command
b. The concept of deep, close and rear operations provides a means of visualising the relationship of friendly forces to one another, and to the enemy, in terms of time, space, resources and purpose. Formations and units may engage
in deep, close and rear operations at different stages of the battle.
Deep operations are normally those conducted against the enemy's forces or resources not currently engaged in the close fight. They prevent the enemy from
using his resources where and when he wants to on the battlefield.
b. Command of Deep Operations. The commander may appoint a subordinate commander to conduct a deep operation. This subordinate commander should either be given
all the resources needed to execute the operation or, at a minimum, have the facility to control the means required to prosecute deep operations.
Forces in contact with the enemy are fighting close operations. Close operations are usually
the corps and division current battle and include the engagements fought by brigades and battalions
Command of close operations is normally best conducted by subordinate commanders who are normally best positioned to formulate, and subsequently adjust, the detailed execution of plans to meet rapidly changing battle situations. When possible, the superior commander will sequence major battlefield actions to ensure
that his command organization, and those of his subordinate commanders, are not over tasked
Rear operations assist in providing freedom of action and continuity of operations, logistics, and command. Their primary purpose is to
sustain the current close and deep operations and to posture the force for future operations
Rear operations must be focused clearly to support the commander's intent. Unity of command is essential in order to coordinate the many support functions and diversity of units involved, potentially spread over a wide area. The responsibility for decisions affecting rear operations must remain with
the formation commander, particularly given the potentially critical effect that the outcome of rear operations may have on close and deep operations
Operations of War Offence is the decisive operation of war. The purpose of offensive operations is to
defeat the enemy by imposing our will on him through the application of focused violence throughout his depth
Defensive Operations.

Purpose. The usual purpose of a defensive operation is to
defeat or deter a threat in order to provide the right circumstances for offensive action. Offensive action is fundamental to the defence to ensure success.
There are two recognized forms of defence: Mobile Defence and
28. Area Defence.
Mobiles Defence
In mobile defence, the defender does not have a terrain advantage and emphasizes defeating the enemy rather than retaining or seizing ground.
28. Area Defence. .
Area defence exploits a terrain advantage and emphasizes the retention of terrain
Delaying operations provide the basis for other operations by yielding ground, that is trading space for time, slowing the enemy's momentum and inflicting maximum damage in such a way that the force conducting the operation ....
does not become decisively engaged.
Delaying operations can be a precursor to either
further defensive or offensive actions.
b. Transitional Phases. Transitional phases link the three operations of war. They can never be decisive and only contribute to the success. They are:
Advance. In the advance, the commander seeks to gain or re-establish contact with the enemy
under the most favourable conditions. By seeking contact in this deliberate manner, the advance to contact differs from the meeting engagement where contact is made unexpectedly.
2. Meeting Engagement. The meeting engagement is a combat action that occurs between two moving forces. These forces may be pursuing quite separate missions that conflict with the meeting engagement. A meeting engagement will often occur during an advance and can easily lead to
a hasty attack. In offensive and defensive operations, it will often mark a moment of transition in that the outcome may well decide the nature of subsequent operations.
3. Link-Up. A link-up is conducted where friendly forces are to join up, normally in
enemy controlled territory. Its aim will be to establish contact between two or more friendly units or formations
4. Withdrawal. A withdrawal occurs when a force disengages
from an enemy force. Although disengagement of main forces is invariably intended, contact may be maintained by screen or reconnaissance forces.
5. Relief of Troops in Combat. Relief of troops occurs when combat activities are taken over by one force from another.
6. There are four types of relief:
1. Relief in Place,
2. Forward Passage of Lines,
3. Rearward Passage of Lines, and
4. Retirement.
a. Joint Operations. At the operational level, forces will always conduct joint operations.
These may involve an air, space, maritime, amphibious, land or Special Forces dimension, and government or civil agencies. Ideally, the operational commander should command all the elements of his force and be able to switch resources swiftly to concentrate on the main effort. If, however, the operational level commander does not have, for example, air assets under his direct command, he will co-ordinate operations with the appropriate air commander to achieve the campaign objectives.
a. Joint Operations. At the operational level, forces will always conduct joint operations. These may involve an air, space, maritime, amphibious, land or Special Forces dimension, and government or civil agencies. Ideally, the operational commander should command all the elements of his force and be able to switch resources swiftly to concentrate on the main effort. If, however, the operational level commander does not have, for example, air assets under his direct command, he will
co-ordinate operations with the appropriate air commander to achieve the campaign objectives.
1) Battle Procedure ; Battle Procedure is the entire military process by which a commander receives his orders, makes his
reconnaissance and plan, issues his orders, prepares and deploys his troops and executes his mission.
Battael procedure is command led vs staff driven, is a fully integrated process that occurs
simultaneously in the chain of command in joint and combined settings.
i) Four stages of battle procedure are
– direction, consideration , decision, execution
Key to batle procedure is
making – make timely and relevant decisions appropriate to the level of command
a) What is mission analysis?
First step in the estimate, enables subordinate to capitalise on evolving it in the manner his Comd would intend and to act forcefully on circumstances his comd may not be aware of – allows you to determine your mission based on tasks you receive from higher.
Mission Analysis - Why do it?
Determination of the following:

Time by which a decision must be made

Priorities of staff work if required

Estb comds special info reqrs

Any other time critical activities
Why is mission analysis important?
First step in Estimate process.
What is the aim or endstate of Mission Analysis?
Arriving at the tasks that you have to accomplish by analysis, in context of the overall design for operations
What is the aim or endstate of Mission Analysis?
Arriving at the tasks that you have to accomplish by analysis, in context of the overall design for operations
Mission analysis
RESULTS IN the commanders own mission statement.
When and where is normally the best location to complete your mission analysis?
Is being reviewed continually in regards to on-going tasks. For new tasks as close to the task area as possible but may be completed anywhere the tasked commander is.
MISSION ANALYSIS helps Determining the following:
His/her superior’s intent

Assigned and implied tasks

Constraints, (time, space and resources including sustainment eg: freedom of action, what I cannot do, when do I need to decide.)
Msn Analysis helps determine if
The situation has changed.
If sit has changed – how has that affected the analysis – which would warrant a review of the estimate?

Three possible outcomes are
(i) Yes – sit has changed but plan is still valid.
(ii) Yes – my orig plan is still feasible but I will have to change my plan
(iii) Yes - sit has changed and plan no longer valid. Cosult superior NOW but if not poss, then act intiative in line with comds intent
Recce Planning Reconnaissance either confirms the commander's outline plan or indicates
a requirement to adjust it. In effect, the reconnaissance answers questions which cannot be answered from the map
The Matrix Method method of recce planning uses a table in conjunction with your map to detail your recce. In essence, it forms
a route card for the recce, with a precise accounting of where you are going, what information you need to determine, time for recce, time for travel, routes, etc. The table below is one example of what this matrix could look like. An advantage of this method is that it leaves your map available for notations or marks during the recce itself. Further, the remarks column provides ample space to jot down points or considerations in an orderly fashion.
Recce Plan - The Map Method This method uses graphics and words placed directly on your map, using the same type of information mentioned in the matrix,
but representing it through drawings and text.
Recce plan common items
threat, as this influences where, when and how the reconnaissance is conducted;

time available to complete the reconnaissance;

means of transportation;

points to be checked and decisions to be made during the reconnaissance;

locations to be visited;

routes to be taken into, out of, and within the area of responsibility; and

security requirements, including the provision of a protective element.
What is the combat estimate?
An estimate at the tactical level which is an abbreviated version of a more formal estimate.
Why do it a combat estimate?
Allows you to get an objective assessment of the risks that you face and suggest ways of countering them
Why is the combat estimate important
At the tactical level, particularly when time is short and information is incomplete, compressed decision-making techniques are required to take the place of the more formal estimate process. An abbreviated form of the estimate, usually completed in mental or note form, is called the Combat Estimate.
What is the aim or endstate of the combat estimate?
A COA that surprises and deceives the Enemy is fundamental to any Combat Estimate.
Aim of combat estimate factors would be
The msn analysis
Factors in a cbt est are
Friendly forces
Other factors -
* surprise
* security
* time and space
Combat Estimate Format. In all cases, Mission Analysis is mandatory in the Combat Estimate. Other factors are:
In most circumstances, the rest of the estimate will concentrate on the Enemy and the Ground element of Environment, Friendly Forces, together with Surprise and Security. Time and Space are normally mandatory, as these deductions are required to derive coordinating instructions for orders.
The detailed manner in which the Combat Estimate is completed will be determined by the local commander taking into account
the prevailing tactical conditions, including the time available to make his decision.
Cbt Est Focuses on the Enemy. In completing the Combat Estimate, it is important to concentrate on Own Force’s ability to exploit .
the Enemy’s vulnerabilities and intentions. This is consistent with an approach to operations at all levels, which emphasizes that fleeting opportunities to take the initiative should be grasped. Thus, active consideration of the situation in order to seek a COA that surprises and deceives the Enemy is fundamental to any Combat Estimate
Combat Etsimate Role of Intuition. The most effective and timely combat estimate is
intuitive (in effect, the commander has the experience and training to only see the best possible course of action ).
What is a hasty attack?
In offensive and defensive operations, it will often mark a moment of transition in that the outcome may well decide the nature of subsequent operations.
Hasty Attack is a type of OFFENSIVE ACTION. "A hasty attack is an attack in which preparation time is traded for speed in order to exploit an opportunity" (AAP-6). It seeks to
take advantage of the enemy's lack of preparedness, and involves boldness, surprise and speed in order to achieve success before the enemy has had time to improve his defence posture.
HASTY ATTACK In the context of an advance - It is of the utmost importance that the momentum of the advance be maintained. Whenever possible, enemy positions should be outflanked. The commander must lay down whether they are to be bypassed and cleared by follow-up forces, or to be taken from the rear by the leading elements. A commander may well decide that a hasty attack by troops in contact is
to his advantage, while another part of the force continues the advance.
The hasty attack is conducted to take advantage of
an unprepared or weak enemy.
Pursuit. The pursuit may follow
a successful penetration of the enemy's main defence area through a series of hasty attacks, resulting in a crumbling of his defence, or it may follow the success of a deliberate attack on a strong point(s) resulting in exploitation.
7. What Happens ACTION ON CONTACT The action to be taken on initial contact depends on the aim, formation bypass policy and enemy situation. Reconnaissance detachments and leading sub-units must always.
be prepared to immediately exploit any opportunity to surprise the enemy or make a hasty crossing of an obstacle
Immediately after contact is made the reconnaissance element should:
a. determine and report the strength and disposition of the enemy and the location
b. and nature of any obstacles;
c. call for direct and indirect fire support;
d. manoeuvre to locate the enemy's flanks and any gaps in his positions or obstacles to permit his positions to be bypassed or taken from the flanks or rear;
e. if permitted, outflank the enemy and continue the advance; and
f. picquet the enemy
The leading sub-unit assists in the reconnaissance of the enemy positions and obstacles, and then, depending on the enemy strength and the battle group commander's orders:
a.bypasses the enemy and continues the advance;

b.mounts a hasty attack to destroy the enemy or seizes his positions; or

c.engages the enemy with fire either to permit another sub-unit to bypass or in preparation for a battle group attack.
A hasty attack is normally launched off the axis of advance and relies primarily on
SOPs and drills.
Preparatory Fire .
weakens the enemy, to inflict casualties on personnel and equipment, to destroy defence works and to disrupt communications
Covering Fire
Tries to neutralize enemy direct fire weapons and positions and to protect our assault element when it is within range of enemy direct fire weapons.
Defensive Fire
Assists and protects a unit engaged in a defensive action. It may be employed in depth to disorganize enemy counter-attack preparations, or close in to engage and destroy enemy when an attack is launched.
Counter Battery Although this is a responsibility of higher formation, the artillery commander at battle group level must ensure that
the CB plans are effective in neutralizing enemy artillery in direct support of the enemy in the objective.
Hasty Attack Arty ammo used
are of the simplest natures. HE will normally be fuzed PD. WP is utilized instead of SMK. Complex drills such as linear targets or deliberate smoke screens are not usually employed. The larger safety distance for DPICM is a consideration.
On COntact
First tank troop in contact normally becomes the fire base – Sqn BC moves to fire base loc
ON COntact after fire base is set up
This leaves three remaining troops who are closing in on the enemey

The first to arrive becomes the left fwd assault tp

The second to arrive becomes the right fwd assault tp

The third troops takes posn behind the assault ps and becomes the intimate sp tp – barrels are elevated for ident
On Contact after all tank trps in posn
Two breaching teams quickly form up – one from each assault troop in attack position

Tm = 1 tank with a plough and 1 engr sect (barrels of breaching tank are at 9 oclock posn.)

Breaching reserve is the plough tank of the intimate sp tp support as called for
On contact
Inf pls org as first pl left, 2nd pl right and 3rd pl depth
On Contact Assault
Breaching teams cross LD at H hour

Remainder stays in attack posn under cover until called fwd

On the lane the fol lineup

Breaching team

Assault tanks – plough meets up with them on the en side of the obs

intimate sp tanks

Inf pl

Sqn OC and dozer tank

Inf Coy OC

2 remaining inf pls


Combat team comd has to decide whether to use 2 lanes or one lane when the first lane hits 75% cleared –
then 2nd lane declares where its at and then Comd decides
24. Coy 2IC could be with the asslt force or in the attack posn
25. Engrs will clear wire obs and be pre to sp dismounted inf on obj
26. Reserves – tnaks from fire base after the arr of main body on the obj, engr sect, inf pl and LAVS once inf has dismounted
Breaching - Firepower items

Fire base and indirect fire resources will conc their fires on the obj while breaching is taking place then
LAVS can secure attack posn, LD, cutoff or flank protection after inf has dismounted

Fire sp on vital targets to neutralize for success of msn

Indirect fire stays on target until the last min of the fr forces approach to the en

Then fire shifts to depth to prevent immediate counter-attacks
CONTROL The organization for combat should provide for coverage of the area of the attack from
well behind the line of departure to the objective and beyond and should include the designation of any measures necessary to control the attack. These will depend on how the attack is to be mounted, and on how the commander wishes to control his forces, and may include the use of the following control measures.
Airspace control measures. Exploitation of the airspace over the area of operations must take account of all potential users which are
- offensive air support, helicopters, air defence, unmanned aerial vehicles and artillery. Requirements for flight routes and areas of restricted/specialized air operations must be coordinated, usually through the Combined Air Operations Centre.
CONTROL MESURES Assault Line. A control measure used to
coordinate the movement of a unit or sub-unit out of the assault position and into the final stage of an attack. (AAP-6)
CONTROL Assembly areas/approach routes. If time permits, forces which are to be brought together or moved up for an attack use an assembly area where they should remain
only for as long as required for their administrative preparation or regrouping. These areas should be out of range of most of the enemy artillery and located so that the approach march from them to the line of departure can be effected smoothly, quickly and using concealed routes.
CONTROL MEASURE Attack position. The attack position is the last position held by
the assaulting force before crossing the line of departure. It is an area to which troops deploy immediately before an attack and in which they may adopt their assault formations. It is occupied for as short a time as possible although final orders or briefings may be given or orientation carried out. It must be reconnoitred and secured before the assaulting force moves in. The area chosen should be easily recognizable, not under direct fire or observation and not a known or likely enemy artillery target.
CONTROL MEASURE Axes and routes. Axes and routes are used to indicate
the course of the movement to be followed and the degree of freedom of manoeuvre permitted en route to the objective(s). Axes establish only the general direction of movement. The subordinate commander is permitted to manoeuvre freely between assigned unit boundaries. Designation of a ‘route’ establishes the specific direction or course which movement will follow.
CONTROL MEASURES Boundaries. A boundary between adjacent units will always be given in order to .
facilitate coordination between the units and to establish responsibility for movement, fire, reconnaissance and security
Control measures Consolidation. In offensive operations, the process of regrouping and adjustment which takes place on the capture of an objective, in preparation for
further offensive operations, or to repel a possible counter-attack. A consolidation area is a zone in which consolidation takes place. (AAP-6)
THE FIRE BASE A fire base provides direct fire support for the assault element and security for the troops in the fire base. The base is created during .
the mounting stage, if the enemy and the group permit, otherwise it will be formed during a subsequent phase of the assault. It is sited to isolate the objective, suppress the enemy and destroy selected targets
Once supporting fire is no longer effective or is masked by the assault element,
the fire base assumes its tasks in the next phase of the operation
THE FOO – Forward Obsn Officer
a. A close support battery is normally in direct support of a battle group.
The battery commander's party at battle group HQ and the forward observation officer (FOO) with the combat team are the most visible aspect of this support.
FOO b. At brigade and battle group levels, the artillery aspects of the tactical plan are coordinated
by the CO and battery commanders of the DS field regiment, respectively. Their FSCCs are collocated with the brigade and unit HQ during operations.
The authority to engage targets (i.e., artillery fire control) is usually exercised
at the lowest practical level
When placed in DS, a field artillery regiment provides dedicated liaison, communications, and personnel in the form of FSCCs, BCs and FOOs. They have the responsibility for .
fire planning and coordining all indirect fire support at every level of command from sub-unit upwards. The relationship is maintained under the concept of affiliation, if possible. This ensures a continuity of fire support to the supported arm at a personal level
FOO IN CLOSE OPS Close operations are primarily concerned with striking the enemy, although the purpose also includes fixing selected enemy forces in order to allow a strike by another component of the force. These operations are conducted at short range and in an immediate time scale. Artillery guns, with their relatively high degree of accuracy and consistency, variable rates of fire, variety of munitions, and inherent flexibility, are well suited to such operations. Artillery is commanded at the highest level, while control of fire is
decentralized to the lowest levels (e.g., FOOs at company/squadron level).
Forward observation officers (FOOs) should be grouped with the leading elements in order to
read the battle and react to the unexpected.
C2 of the Combat team Echelon

41. When a combat team is formed orders that are issue then start the process and explain any changes in C2 or adm arrangements.
a. Gaining unit
i. Gets elements of
other arms under OP COM or OP CON (if elms are likely to be regrouped alter)
ii. Gets the task of providing daily maint (ammo-fuel-rats) to all atts placed under its command or control
C2 of Cbt Team

Losing units

Retain responsibility for admin less daily maint and each cbt team is
still plugged into its parent unit for certain things
1. pers admin/maint for specific eqpt, replacement tech stores, repair parts etc
Command of the CT echelon Armd
F – Inf Coy, Tk Sqn, Fd Tp, FOO
A1 – Inf Coy A, Tk Sqn Echelon, and elm of HQ sqn (where all sp elms are loc)
Elms of the losing engr sqns A1 if req – normally they can sp the engrs no problem

Inf – centralized based on Admin coy
Deploys A1 to Inf Coys and retains remainder

Adm Coy splits into 3 groups

B – non critical sp to the unit in the BSA. BN OR/Adjt chrif clerk, Op Con to
CS SVC BN for movement and defence, Svc Bn may do daily maint, con pers records and flow of reinfts to the units plus LOB pers

A1 – travels with the Inf Coy/Slice of the Adm Coy for immediate Sp reqr. OP CON from the Adm Coy to the subunits

A2 – Remainder of the ADM Coy. A2 reqr for sustainment of but is of less immediacy than A1
Armd – Decentralised system
Every tk sqn has a small ech under its full comd

HQ Sqn – has remainder of the Unit IS elms

4 groups on the battlefield

Regt OR – similar to Inf above

SQN A1 – slice of the Sqn ech, immed behind the Sqn, comd by the SSM. A1 has ammo, POL, maint,med sup and OC Rover

Sqn A2 – Comd by Sqn 2IC, backup assets to the A1 in all A1 roles

B Ech – HQ Sqn less the Regt OR
44. Leaguer
– defensive fmn armd/mech forces while they replenish, maint or rest. Sometimes concealed, posture adopted by force adm convenience and protection.
– occupy before moving to battle or fire posn. Area offers concealment where a force awaits before ops of mov to battle posn.
Harbour – is a Temp area and permits
dispersal and concealment during rest, maint replenishment or other adm activities. Area wher en interference considred unlikely and emphasis on admin convenience.
Running replenishment is an
Efficient way to conduct running replenishment. Procedure works well in narrow forested tracks, villages or entry to a hide/waiting area.
Cbt Team Harbour Drill
Orders recv to mov to area

Subunits meet guides at RV

Vehs sited to allow fwd exit

Vehs switch off

2 min stand to after last veh switches off

stand to until area reported clear

coord trrops arcs with the tps on their right

Cbt Tm HQ coord security access, security elms

Admin states via tp comd to Cbt Tm HQ

20 mins after stand to ends

CT Comd issues orders
Discuss the purposes and rationale for the defense.
Defensive operations are conducted to hold ground, gain time, or defeat an enemy attack. They are undertaken when the enemy has the initiative, and they are usually temporary. Once the enemy's strength has been depleted offensive operations are begun.
Defensive operations are conducted for any of the following reasons:
to weaken the enemy's offensive capability and cause his attack to fail;

to hold vital ground and to prevent the enemy from breaking through;

to gain time to prepare for or resume offensive operations;

to contain the enemy in one area, while attacking elsewhere; or

to force the enemy to concentrate to make a more lucrative target.
Principles of War in the Defence
concentration of force;
offensive action; and
Defence Fundamentals
Information Gathering. Information about the enemy is vital to the conduct of defensive operations. It must be obtained prior to and during the battle to give commanders the ability to judiciously concentrate their forces and firepower at the correct place and time.
Information is gathered from four sources in defensive operations:
covering forces,
intelligence agencies, including target acquisition systems,
patrols, and
troops in contact.
Defence use of terrain The strength of a defence depends to a large extent on the selection and use of terrain. A commander’s ability to analyse the terrain, determine the approaches, select vital ground and key terrain, and deploy his forces quickly
determines the outcome of an operation.
DEFENCE The selected terrain should allow the approaches to be covered by fire. It should also offer the defender
concealment and protection, while restricting the enemy’s observation and deployment capability. Preferably, a defence area contains natural barriers which can be reinforced by man-made obstacles.
Terrain is classified as:

Open Terrain. This terrain is relatively flat and unencumbered by
forests, built-up areas, waterways, and other natural barriers. It is covered easily by surveillance and can be dominated by fire.
Close Terrain. This terrain may have considerable relief and may be broken by
forests, built-up areas and other natural barriers. It restricts an attacker’s movement and provides good concealment and protection for the defender
Key Terrain and Vital Ground. A commander must designate his vital ground, i.e.,
that ground which, if lost, makes the defence untenable.
KEY TERRAIN He then identifies the main approaches to his vital ground and the key terrain which dominates or blocks those approaches. From this assessment,
he identifies the key terrain which is to be held.
A commander selects his vital ground, key terrain, and killing zones by:
identifying obstacles at the FEBA,

determining approaches to the FEBA,

anticipating enemy objectives,

identifying obstacles in the main defence area,

completing approach descriptions, and

ranking the approaches in terms of their likelihood of use.
Defence Coordination. All aspects of the defence require coordination, including
passage of lines by covering and counterattack forces, boundaries, liaison, barrier plan, fire support, air defence, airspace control, and combat service support.
DEFENCE A commander achieves and maintains co-ordination by:
understanding his superior commander’s concept of operations,

understanding the doctrine and procedures of the adjacent ally,

selecting boundaries so that they do not increase the coordination problem,

selecting coordinating points along the boundary, and

exchanging information and liaison detachments, and planning for mutual support.
DEFENCE Mutual Support. This is achieved when the gaps between defended positions are covered by fire, preferably
direct fire, so that the attacker cannot assault one position without being subjected to fire from at least one other. The degree of mutual support achieved depends upon the terrain, visibility and range of weapons
DEFENCE Depth. Defence in depth causes an attacker to execute successive stages of his operation without detailed reconnaissance. It also
helps to surprise an attacker and draw him into committing his next echelon or reserve. It absorbs the attacker’s momentum and thus prevents a breakthrough.
DEFENCE The depth of the defence area should be proportional to
the strength, mobility and firepower of the attacker and the frontage to be defended.
Manoeuvre. This is the decisive element of a defence. By combining movement with fire,
the defender can make the best use of terrain to inflict high losses on the attacker.
DEFENCE Firepower. The effectiveness of the defence is based primarily on the planned fire
of all weapons. The fire of manoeuvre units, conventional and nuclear artillery, armed helicopters, and tactical air and naval elements must be complementary, coordinated, and applied at the right time and place.
Defence i. Use of Reserves. Reserves are uncommitted forces which a commander requires
to maintain freedom of action to deal with anticipated and unexpected developments. They provide flexibility and balance.
DEFENCE needs reserves... Their main functions are to
reinforce, block, counter-attack, replace other units and protect flanks and rear areas.
Stages Of The Defensive Battle.

The defence is a single battle, fought in two stages leading to an offensive operation. These stages are:
covering force battle; and

main defence battle, including countermoves (reinforcing, blocking and counter-attacking).
covering force fights a battle of movement and there will seldom be time to prepare battle positions. Maximum destruction is inflicted
on the enemy so that he arrives at the main defensive area dislocated and in a state of undermined cohesion.
DEFENCE The commander will normally establish a covering force to
form the first echelon of a defence in depth. A commander avoids assigning conflicting tasks to a covering force.
DEFENCE tasks of Cover force may be:
gaining information on the location,

direction and weight of the enemy
attack (his main effort);

gaining time;

attrition - inflicting casualties on the enemy;

providing security; and

disruption - causing damage to the enemy's cohesion
DEFENCE The size and composition of the covering force will depend on
the mission, enemy, terrain and available forces. Wherever possible, the forces used as a covering force should not be required immediately in the main defensive area.
DEFENCE BATTLE HANDOVER viii. Forces in the main defensive area assume responsibility for the battle at the handover line. As the covering force approaches the handover line, it may become necessary
to increase the intensity of the fire support from the defence area to allow the covering force to disengage
MAIN DEF BATTLE The aim of the main defence battle is _______________________________ within the main defence area together with the use of obstacles and reserves. Tactics in the main defensive area will vary and there can be no set course of action.
to stop the enemy advance by a combination of firmly held battle positions
Main Dfensive Battle Initial Actions. Once the enemy has reached the main defensive area,
he will try to find weak points and attempt to force a passage, possibly by a series of small-scale attacks. As the enemy attack begins to develop, the forward units will engage them.
Defence Conduct of the Battle. The battle will be fought by
the formation's subordinate units using direct fire, indirect fire and manoeuvre against the assaulting enemy forces. The commitment of reserves must be controlled.
DEFENCE Penetration. Undefended areas may be unavoidable between battle positions, but they must not be left where the probable main enemy effort is expected. They must be kept
under surveillance, covered by fire or, where possible, blocked by barriers. These responsibilities must be clearly defined. If the enemy succeeds in penetrating the main defence area, the defender must block the penetration immediately and destroy this enemy force as soon as possible, hence the need for reserves with battlefield mobility.
For what reasons might a delay operation be conducted?

Delaying operations provide the basis for other operations by yielding ground, that is trading space for time, slowing the enemy's momentum and inflicting maximum damage in such a way that
the force conducting the operation does not become decisively engaged. They can be a precursor to either further defensive or offensive actions.
Principles of War are of particular concern in the delay:
offensive action, and

Delay general At the earliest opportunity, the delaying force will engage the enemy, inflicting casualties by providing maximum fire in combination with
mobile actions, including quick and limited counter-attacks against enemy troops who have overextended themselves or have exposed an open flank. Opportunities are most likely to occur when the enemy has just crossed an obstacle or is temporarily separated from his follow-up troops.
DELAY Every advantage offered by the terrain should be exploited. The rapid advance of the enemy, particularly along roads, should be impeded, causing him to
bunch and offer himself as target. Every opportunity must be taken to surprise him and to ambush him, avoiding becoming decisively engaged, by timely manoeuvre.
DELAY WILL Necessitate constant and close coordination between adjacent units to ensure that:
positions and manoeuvre of own troops is known;

mutual support of fire is possible;

beginning and end of specific operations are known; and

awareness of the situation and probable intention of the enemy are known.
Delay Disengagement. Troops withdrawing from a position must attempt to break contact with the enemy. This can be achieved by
withdrawing through a position occupied by another unit, or suddenly breaking off the engagement when the enemy is unable to follow up immediately. The important decision is to judge the correct moment when to withdraw from each position.
DELAY Breaking Contact. The move of the delaying force into an area where another force takes over responsibility is .
a critical operation, especially if the force has been unable to disengage. The overall commander will specify a handover line
DEALY RESERVES Reserves are important for
the maintenance of the cohesion and continuity of delaying operations particularly where the enemy has been able to outflank or to penetrate through gaps between delaying force elements.
Blocking. Containing the enemy in the area where insufficient forces have previously been deployed.

Counter-attacks. Normally, these will have limited objectives. It may be necessary to use reserves to counter-attack into gaps or in order to achieve disengagement of heavily committed forces.

Covering Actions. Reserves may also be used in prepared positions to cover withdrawing forces in order to enable them to continue the engagement in more favourable terrain.
DELAY C2 2. Warning.
Defending forces become aware that resistance is increasing to their front. Troops in the front lines and FOO start engaging the en to begin to slow him down.
DELAY C2 Security.
Any AFV not engaged remains concealed until called forward

Engrs Provide counter mob sp to shape the ground the en will have to advance into

Flank Security is maintained
Initial from map. Afterwards extensive recce required for the combat tm comd and down to crew comd level. Everyone has to be acutely aware of the ground they are responsible for
Simple and Flexible. Find, fix, strike and withdraw to subsequenet battle posn

Combat team commander is posn well fwd. Addressing a number of comd issues
Span of command across fwd posns and have altn comd on less threatened axis to maintain control if a fight developes in the fwd area so BG Comd can plan a reaction

Calculate the time they are delaying vs the losses they are incurring. Needs to be told how long to hold or how long to stay there until his fore slips below a certain level

He has to determine if he has enough assets to do the job he has been given
d. Must try and develop as much information on the enemy in the local as he can
Alternate or successive bounds are a typical delay routine and he has to be prepared to occupy any battle posn by cbta elms

Does he have enough mobility/counter-mobility assets

Can he retian mobility if he dismounts his infantry?

He needs to have a counter move force or a reserve mounted to quickly exploit local enemy weaknesses. Must be able to re-build/reconstitute his reserve. If he is on a main posn

Can he re-occupy fwd posns or attack en in depth?
Use all aval firepower and use it to block or channel the en in close country
En may have local air superiority so what does that imply.
Believe all arms have to have local AD and he could bid for AD sp?

Security of sustainment activities – en will seek these out as weak link vs hit cbta elms
Will need to send lots of rounds downrange – must be able to keep re-sup going when the going gets tough. Incl policy to deny/destroy eqpt (DUNKIRK is a good example of this)
DELAY SUSTAINMENT Cooperation It is only through effective cooperation that the components of a force can develop the full measure of their strength. It entails
a common aim, team spirit, interoperability, division of responsibility and the coordination of all the combat functions to achieve maximum synergy. Combat service support integration is a manifestation of cooperation. Tactical plans will not succeed without fully integrated Combat service support. The commander must ensure that his operation can be sustained at every stage of execution. Combat service support unit commanders must plan their own activities to give the commander the greatest possible freedom of action throughout the operation.
DELAY Administration. Operational plans are unlikely to succeed unless great care is devoted to administrative arrangements. These must be flexible and designed
so that a commander has maximum freedom of action. Successful administration is the ability to make the best and most timely use of resources
DELAY - SUSTAINMENT 5. Sustainment is achieved through the balance of military administration and civilian support through host nation support, other governmental departments and agencies, and civilian contractors. Military administration includes,
primarily, personnel administration and logistics. Sustainment provides the physical means with which forces operate but also contributes to moral cohesion through effective medical services, flexible personnel administration and morale programs.
DEALY At Combat team level here are things to consider
replenishment before commencement of operation;

the backloading of excess stores and ammo;

consider maintaining repair, recovery and medical assets forward, as long as possible;

the denial of equipment and supplies policy;

the ability to evacuate personnel casualties;and

replenishment on arrival in new position.
Explain the concept of transitional phases.
If offense, defense and delay are major war like operations the unit (s) that are in operations have to get into the offense or move to the defense by an action known as a transitional phase. If the aim of a particular operation is make contact or stay in contact or break contact – something has to be happening to allow for quick and efficient transition to offense or defense (for example) which brings all resources at the Combat team commander’s disposal to bear on the enemy or the tactical problem at hand.
What is the purpose of an advance to contact?
Gain or re-estb contact with the en on the best terms for the main force.
How is an advance to contact conducted?

Seeks contact in a deliberate manner.

Aim is
to seize and maintain the initiative by destroying or forcing withdrawal of the enemy element and seizing ground of tactical importance.
ADV TO CONTACT Commander has to anticipate things that may happen. Like requirements for maneuver and fire support when they do make contact. As they advance
the commander is constantly updating and analyzing what is going on as reports come in from his advancing forces. Units are positioned based on the mission requirements and CSS is placed so that it will not interfere with the advance.
ADV TO CONTACT Covering Force – has recce units which seek to locate and determine strength of the en by advancing on an axis which is allowed to develop as the advance unfolds.
Finds and exploits gaps to allow for possible envelopement or bypass by the advance guard and main body
ADV TO CONTACT Advance Guard and Main Body – How they get forward depends on
the quality and number of routes that are aval to it. Rate of advance depends on terrain, where the enemy is and how striong he is and the opportunities to bypass him. Grouping must be flexible to allow units in the advancing force to take over the advance guard role, change direction as required to avoid opposition or bypass en and take advantage of better routes.
ADV TO CONTACT Flank and rear guards – travel on same general axis as the main body and seek to
prevent any interference with mainbody. Depends on the threat. Flank units like armd forces may not be string enough to deal with en encountred but will be able to give out early warning.
ADV TO CONTACT Action on contact – speed of manuevre and intitiative may over come en before he can react properly. Aims to .
quickly over power any en that may interfere with movement of the main body and if it can’t then to picket those forces. Elements of the advance gaird may be detailed to deal with by passed enemy
ADV TO CONTACT By pass policy – has to be clearly thought out.
Not always clear how big en is and it depends on accurate recce and intelligence. Do not want to be caught with good numbers of en in rear of the friendly force.
ADV TO CONTACT Routes – once the main force is estb the force must be maintained and cas evac’d
and these routes to the rear have to be kept clear of en and may need friendly troops to patrol them or help keep them maintained.
ADV TO CONTACT SUSTAINMENT How does one sustain the advance?
Aim in general is to allow commander maximum flexibility primarly through the echelon system that anticipates his needs and moves stocks up based on the tactical plan and then retrieves eqpt and pers cas to be repaired and re-intro to the battle as quickly as possible. Gives him continuity and the knowledge that he has a plan in place to get his combat supplies up and cas out, and pers sp items like CANEX goods thus giving all a large morale advantage.
What is the difference between an advance to contact and a meeting engagement?
While an advance to contact is an activity that actively seeks contact, the meeting engagement may not be a planned event.
When may a meeting engagement occur?
When either side is seeking contact. The TRANSITIONAL PHASE ACTIVITY is often how aggressive the defender or the attacker is and can tip the initiative away from the other side.
ADV TO CONTACT Once it happens Procedure.
The commander whose forces make contact with the enemy in a meeting engagement must immediately decide how he wants to fight the battle. In deciding on a course of action he must not lose sight of his original mission and of his superior commander’s intent. On the other hand, he must not shirk his responsibility to act independently. His decision must be notified to his superior commander immediately.
One of the commander's first tasks in a meeting engagement is to determine the enemy's strengths and dispositions. He should particularly ascertain the situation on the enemy's flanks. The identification of and an attack on an assailable flank will generally disclose the enemy's dispositions more rapidly than a frontal attack and will give more opportunity for tactical surprise and decisive results.
Aspects of a link-up operation.

Is when two friendly forces meet in en territory. May be nec
to destroy en in these areas, or one force may be moving to another that is not moving. Could be an encirclement. Could be when two obj on the same axis have been captured. Or on the boundaries of adjacent units, one of which was surrounded or on its perimeter in the case of an airborne unit.
LINK UP Conduct. May be part of the plan from the outset. Or it could become nec as an operation developes.
Mission to do this always relates to future operations. You do it for a reason. When the plan for a linkup is set – it has to consider coord of the forces involved, c2 relations, and control measures.

When a moving force meets a static force – need to get there as fast as possible and minimize the vulnerability of the static force.
Each unit must be fully aware of ground link up points along the axis of the advancing and static unit. Restrive fire line is set to coord fire from the converging forces. For the moving force – there may be a requirement for deliberate attacks or to speed up their rate of advance. When contact is made – they move on through or join up.
sustainment plan (for any of these operations or parts thereof) has to be developed.

Sustainment. The following could be typical sustainment actions:
establish administrative plan;

select locations for echelons; and

dumping of defensive stores.

organize echelons to include
composition of combat loads;

develop a feeding plan;

organize casualty evacuation (casualty
collection point, placement of medical
resources, etc.); and

organize PW evacuation.
LINK UP Depending on the intensity of the operation expected
– more combat supplies may have to be brought forward and more medical resources positioned to deal with higher cas ( incl stress cas) – routes in and out of the area may become congested, slowed down or even closed for parts of the operation, facilities may have to be sought in towns or urban areas and CIMIC could become an issue.
WITHDRAWL What are the circumstances under which a force will conduct a withdrawal operation?
When the commander’s plan intends to break way from the enemy. Contact may be maint by screen or recce forces.
replenishment before commencement of operation;

the backloading of excess stores and ammo;

consider maintaining repair, recovery and medical assets forward, as long as possible;

the denial of equipment and supplies policy;

the ability to evacuate personnel casualties; and

replenishment on arrival in new position.
RELIEF When will a relief operation be conducted?
Relief is normally undertaken in order to sustain the overall level of combat power. Inherent, is the transfer of operational responsibility for a combat mission. The requirement is that this transfer should take place while maintaining the required level of operational capability. Commanders normally co-locate to effect the handover.
4 types of relief
Relief in Place. A relief in which all or part of a force is replaced in a sector by an incoming unit.

Forward Passage of Lines. A relief in which a force advances or attacks through another which is in contact with the enemy.

Rearward Passage of Lines. A relief where a force effecting a movement to the rear passes through the sector of a unit occupying a defensive position.

Retirement. A retirement is different from a withdrawal in that it is a movement away from the enemy by a force out of contact.
Replenishment should be conducted before commencement of the operation. Commanders should consider a possible exchange of equipment and supplies including mortar base plates, defensive stores, line communications, combat supplies, tri-pods and equipment that is difficult to move.
The in-place force provides as much combat service support as possible to the moving force. The moving force combat team commander should consider deploying the A1 echelon to the in-place force to allow the in-place plan to conduct running replenishment.
Steve Linton is what Rank