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22 Cards in this Set

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All of the following are necessary attributes of a nation-state EXCEPT

A. occupation of a definite territory
B. an organized government
C. predominant use of a single language
D. possession of international and external sovereignty
C

Many nation-states have a wide diversity of official languages. As an example, we could look to India. Hindi is the national language, but is spoken by only 30% of the population.
At the same time, there are 14 official languages.
Many of the developing nations that achieved independence after 1945 have become noted for their chronic instability. Which of the following factors generally contributed LEAST to this instability?

A. the rise of political factionalism
B. the large numbers of unassimiliated ethnic and/or religious minorities
C. the artificiality of national boundaries drawn by former colonial rulers
D. the continued use of administrative systems inherited from colonial powers
D

Each of the first 3 choices lends itself to either internal or external political hostilities. These hostilities can range from civil wars to border skirmishes. In most of these nations, the administrative systems inherited from colonial powers serve as the stabilizing factor.
The Scopes Trial of 1925 took on national significance because it

A. marked the first time that a US court ruled that the theory of evolution was correct
B. led to the first federal appropriation of aid for scientific research
C. symbolically pitted the new scientific outlook against the religious outlook of the Fundamentalists
D. was William Jennings Bryan's last major attempt to attract national attention in an attempt to capture the Democratic Presidential nomination
C

The Scopes Trial pitted the Modernists (represented by Clarence Darrow) against the Fundamentalists (represented by William Jennings Bryan). Bryan's polical career had come to an end 10 years earlier and the court found John Scopes guilty of teaching evolution, which was against Tennessee state law.
The precipitous decline of the New World's indigenous population in the first centure after its initial contact with Europeans was largely due to

A. disease
B. enslavement
C. warfare
D. famine
A

Disease was the #1 killer of Native Americans. Over the centuries, Europeans had built up natural immunities to such diseases as smallpox, typhus, and measles. Native Americans, having no immunity to such diseases, were decimated when they came into contact with these diseases.
Who said, "In the future, everyone will be famous for at least 15 minutes"

A. Mike Wallace
B. Andy Warhol
C. Barbara Walters
D. Marshall McLuhan
B

The quote comes from entries on Thursday, July 27, 1978, and Thursday June 2, 1983, in The Andy Warhol Diaries.
Milton Babbitt, John Harrison, Gunther Schuller, and John Cage are BEST known as

A. conductors of symphonic orchestras
B. ballet choreographers
C. playwrights
D. contemporary composers
D

this is the only characteristic listed that is shared by all three individuals.
All of the following circumstance have contributed to the current emphasis on protecting the US environment from toxic wastes EXCEPT

A. safe places to store toxis wastes in the US have become scarce
B. Research has increased knowledge of the toxicity of many widely used chemicals
C. the amount of wastes of all kinds has grown
D. deregulation has made it easier for the public to purchase and use toxic substances
D

Current regulations have made it more difficult for the public to purchase and use toxic substances. This is the exact opposite of what is stated in choice D
In some areas of the United States, the presence of Southeast Asian refuges has produced consideable tension for which of the following reasons?
I. fear of their impact on welface rolls
II. anti-Asian racism
III. resentment of their entrepreneurial competition
IV. perceptions of them as clannish

A. I only
B. III only
C. I and II only
D. I, II, III, IV
D

Some people fear that the status of SE Asians refugees will automatically make them welfare recipients. In addition, nativism has led to anti-Asian racism since the 1800s. The entrepreneurial work ethic of many Asians has led to success, which is resented by some, and, whether by choice or circumstance, many immigrants tend to reside in localized communities, which leads some people to perceive them as being clannish.
Which of the following columnists is known for the conservative tone of his or her work?

A. Russell Baker
B. Carl Rowan
C. Meg Greenfield
D. George Will
D

George Will is a conservative political writer and commentator for the Chicago Sun-Times. Russell Baker is best known as a political satirist, Carl Rowan for his work with civil Rights, and Meg Greenfield as an editor/writer.
To the argument that television gives a truer account of what happens in a courtroom than does any other news medium, all of the following objections may reasonably be advanced EXCEPT

A. the television director, by choosing the image of which the camera focuses, engages in a process of selection just as a newspaper report or an editor does
B. a pictorial medium has difficulty in dealing with abstract ideas, such as points of law, which are often the most important part of a court proceeding
C. television inevitably becomes an "actor" in the courtroom proceedings and thereby changes the event as it records it
D. television reporters, because they must concentrate on the technical and theatrical aspects of electronic journalism, have little time to master the complexities of a court case.
D

The first 3 choices are all factual statements that can reasonably be advanced as arguments against the statement. The 4th choice would not be acceptable because reporters from all mediums would have the same difficulty in mastering the complexities of the court case.
In the US, campaigns for major public offices are increasingly being controlled by

A. political action committees
B. media consultants
C. candidates' press agents
D. local political party chairpersons
B

Candidates today are being advertisied to the voter. With the advent of "spin," which has become so important in political campaigns, media consultants can make or break a candidate. They can positively portray him/her on TV with phrases, info, looks, etc., that will appeal to the voters. Most voters do not study the issues. They hear a "spin" and decide whether they like or dislike a candidate.
Which of the following is the major reason that it is easy to block a bill in congress but difficult to enact one?


A. Well-organized opposing political parties in Congress
B. the decentralized committee structure of Congress
C. the influence of pork-barrel politics on congressional voting
D. institutional conflict between Congress and the president
B

The fact that a bill can be sent to one of many committee can doom it to failure. The Committee chairpeople can sit on a vill, never bring it before a committee, or send it to subcommittees that will study it to death or report unfavorably on it.
Also, once in committee, many add-ons, or "pork barrel" legislation, can be attached to the original bill, such as things as committee chairman may want to his district, things other majority members of the committee may want for their disricts, etc. Without their support, the original bill may be killed.
Two key precepts of the Constitution that were not present in the Articles of Confederation are to


A. buffer the government from the immediate impact of popular impulse and tend the vote to all
B. promote the power of individual states over that of the federal government and keep the branches of the federal government separate but linked
C. keep the president closely tied to the will of the majority and promote the power of individual states over that of the federal gov't
D. buffer the government from the immediate impact of popular impuse and keep the branches of the federal government sepate but linked
D

2 key precepts of the Constitution were to buffer the government from the immediate impact of popular impulse via representative gov't, and to keep the branches of the federal government separate but linked via a system of checks and balances.
- Neither document attempted to extend the vote to all;
- promoting the power of individual states over that of the federal government was a key precept of the Articles of Confederation, not the Constitution.
Which of the following statement is true about Executive Privilege

A. It allows the president to withhold certain information from Congress and the courts
B. It protects members of the executive branch from prosecution for any acts committed in the course of performing their jobs
C. it is the concept that underlies the president's use of a pocket veto during a session of Congress
D. it protects the members of the Cabinet when the president faces impeachment proceedings
A

- Executive Privaledge exempts an executive from disclosing information that is necesssary to maintain highly important governmental operation or domestic decision-making or policy-making.
- In 1974, the court ruled in US v. Nixon that the president could not withhold evidence needed in a criminal trial. This meant that the idea of executive priviledge was not unlimited.
If the Federal Reserve were to adopt an Accommodative policy and then decrease the discoute rate and buy government securities in the open market, it would most likely be responding to

A. rising interst rates due to an increase in the money supply
B. rising interest rates due to a decrease in the money supply
C. falling interest rates due to an increase in the money supply
D. falling interest rates due to a decrease in the money supply
A

- The Fed decreases the discount rate when attempting to counter rising interest rates.
- By purchasing government securities in the open market, the Fed is able to increase the money supply.
In the US, the last 25 years of the 1800s were characterized by several violent conflict between capital and labor, which by 1908 resulted in


A. the use of federal court injunctions to jail strikers without a jury trial
B. the intensive participation of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in politics
C. the unionization of the vast majority of factory workers
D. general acceptance of the closed shop by employers
A

A prime example of the use of Federal court injunctions to jail strikers without a jury trial was the injunctin that was granted during the Pullman strike, which forbade any interference with the mail or restraint of interstate commerce. This injunction, upheld by the SC, was used to jail Eugene V. Devs for 6 months
All of the following were objectives of the common, or public, school movement of 1840-1860 EXCEPT


A. primary school education for all white Americans, regardless of sex
B. a professionally trained teaching force
C. establishment of a uniform national curriculum
D. introduction of a new pedagogy based on the idea that children were capable of infinite improvement
For the time period given, the responsibility for education was still within the domain of the individual states. It would not be until the 1950s that the Federal government would use the "elastic clause" to assume partial control of the ducation suystem for reasons of national security.
In rhw US, at which of the following levels of education are there more privately than publicly controlled schools?

I. Elementary
II. Secondary
III. Post-secondary


A. III only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, II, III
A

According to the Diest of Edcation Statitsic, 2000, privately controlled elementary schools account for 25% of all elementary schools, privately controlled secondary schools account for 14% of all secondary schools, and privately controlled postsecondary schools account for 80% of all post-secondary schools.
A major difference between US political parties and political parties in European parliamentary systems is that


A. European parties are less ideologically rigid
B. US parties have stronger local organizations
C. European parties exercise more discipline over their elected representatives in the legislature
D. US parties better represent special interests
C

The political parties int he US are very decentralized and devoid of the rigid discipline and hierarchy found in most European political parties.
A distinguishing feature of the parliament form of government in that


A. Parliament is the sole repository of legitimacy and may not delegate governmental authority to regional or local units.
B. no final action may be taken on a bill until all members of parliament have had an opportunity to speak either for or against it.
C. members of the government are not allowed to take part in parliamentary debates that involve appropriations.
D. Parliament has the power to call for an election or require the Prime Minister to resign
D

In a parliamentary government, the government only stays in power as long as Parliament supports it. If the ruling party loses on an important issue or there is a vote of no confidence, the prime minister can be required to resign. At that point, the leader of the opposition party is asked to form a new government or elections are held to determine which party shall have majority control of the government.
To confirm with the chronological sequence most commonly followed by US manufacturers that are launching international operations, the activities below should be undertaken in which of the following sequences?

I. Establish a foreign sales branch
II. Initiate overseas assembly of parts manufactured in the US
III. Begin full-scale manufacturing overseas
IV. Export US goods through a foreign distributor

A. I, II, III, IV
B. I, IV, III, II
C. III, IV, II, I
D. IV, I, II, III
D

IV - see if there is foreign demand
I - est. foreign sales branch
II - initiate overseas assembly
III - begin full-scale operations
All of the following statement concerning dumping in international trade are correct EXCEPT


A. it is defined as sell at less than value
B. it forms the basis for a claim in the World Court
C. it constitutes an unfair trade practice under GATT
D. it is subject to US law
B

The statements presented in A, C, and D are all factually correct.
- Dumping in international trade would not in and of itself form a basis for a claim in the World Court (International Court of Justice).