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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How people provide for basic needs.
subsistence
How people organize themselves and their interactions with other societies
social organization
The knowledge or beliefs used
ideological systems
How people interact with and adapt to their environments
technology
what is the least difficult tool of interpretation for archaeologists use?
Technology
what is the third most difficult tool of interpretation for archaeologists use?
Social Organization
This type of analogy requires that you demonstrate the continuance/endurance of a majority of the social and cultural practices through time and in the same place.
specific
The study of environment and adaptation is more appropriately stated as the study of the interaction between ____________ and ____________?
technology, subsistence
Which component of the environment consists of everything that is biological on the planet?
natural
The social environment is separated into two categories. Of these two, the _________ social environment is frequently characterized _________?
Conceptual … as defined by the presence of certain people
Lithic technologies are more apt to be used in which industry?
food procurement
Human communities tend to maintain themselves ________ the carrying capacity
below
Everyone is descended from a common, revered ancestor
ranked society
Status in the society is mediated by variables of age, gender, and personal achievement.
egalitarian
People are no longer related
stratified
People have equal access to resources and decision-making power
egalitarian
The most basic in this type is the elite/commoner distinction
stratified
In doing settlement analysis, we can typically learn about __________________ from both households and settlements/communities?
degree of sedentism
Which unit of analysis in settlement analysis can also be used to describe another unit of analysis in some circumstances?
activity area
Which of the following would be an example of a symbolic feature?
The Statue of Liberty
A radiocarbon date of 4800 years plus or minus 80 years indicates that the date has a 95 percent chance of falling between:
4960 and 4640 radiocarbon years
Using the Cambridge half-life of 5730 years for 14C, how old is a charcoal sample that has 25 percent of its original radiocarbon remaining?
11460 years
Thee study of taphonomy refers to:
How natural processes produce patterns in archaeological data
A group of people with no fixed number of positions of status and where all have nearly equal access to critical resources is termed:
a band
analogies justified by similarities in the formal attributes of archaeological and ethnographic objects and features.
Formal analogies
analogies justified on the basis of close cultural continuity between the archaeological and ethnographic cases or similarity in general cultural form.
relational analogies
3 tools for paleoenvironmental reconstruction
pollen cores, animal remains, technological reconstruction
carrying capacity
Number and density of people a particular region and environment with X number and quantities of resources can sustain
what can be learned from activity areas?
subsistence activities, seasonality, craft specialization
what can be learned from households?
degree of sedentism, family social structure, division of labor, religious beliefs/practices
what can be learned from settlements/communities?
degree of sedentism, socio-political organization, economic organization, religious beliefs/practices, social conflict
what can be learned from regional settlement patterns?
population movements, socio-political organization, economic organization, religious beliefs/practices, social conflict