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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
You are a zooarchaeologist looking at remains from a site in Europe. You have 43 complete capris (goat) skulls and 58 complete right scapulae for the same species (shoulder blades). The MNI (minimum number of individuals) for this site is:
Study human ancestors
Study the biological nature of humans and their ancestors
biological anthropologist
Study the physical and biological characteristics of human remains recovered.
forensic anthropologist
Study the morphological and physical characteristics of humans.
physical anthropologist
What is an explanation for how the Iceman died?
He was killed as a result of an assassination attempt as evidenced by the arrow wound found in his shoulder.
Which stage of field processing requires excellent penmanship?
What is an objective of classification?
To define variability within a given data set
You have a selection of stone tools in front of you and you sort them into piles with labels such as knives, blades, projectile points. This would be an example of a ___________ type of classification.
This type of classification has a problem in that it implies that there is a decision making hierarchy inherent in the production of a given artifact
_________ types are artifacts grouped based on overall similarity, which are generally independent of function or significance.
A stone scraper assemblage from Alaska that covers all stone scrapers from the region would be an example of __________ type.
The law of superposition is the principal that states that the sequence of observable layers, from _______ to _______ reflects the order of deposition from _______ to _______.
bottom to top, oldest to youngest
In examining an assemblage of pots recovered from an excavation, you note that different frequencies of pottery types come from different stratigraphic levels of your excavation. By documenting these differences in a systematic manner you are able to do what type of temporal analysis?
A culture regulates behavior in what three areas?
Social, technology, ideological
One trueism in archaeology is that a culture is greater than the sum of its parts. As a result, when archaeologists look at diagnostic attributes, they have to keep in mind the cautionary note that similarities in diagnostics could reflect:
An ideological symbol that unifies multiple cultures
A past culture is identified by archaeologists by:
Multiple lines of evidence of which artifacts are only a part
Using one stone to whack a flake off of another stone is called _______.
hard hammer percussion
In sorting stone tools, archaeologists typically sort them initially into ______ and ______ groupings.
ground stone, chipped stone
A material typically associated with the production of chipped stone tools is:
Which is not an example of a unifacial tool?
Projectile point
Which of the following ceramic firing methods leads to an uneven or ‘cloudy’ appearance to pottery?
Which method of laboratory analysis would be used to best determine how a pottery vessel was used?
residue analysis
You are on the game show Jeopardy and the answer is “Kaolin is the finest example of this type of material “. The question is:
What is clay
An example of this is the use of netting to impress the design on a pot
An example of this is the opposite of punctuate decoration
An example of this is the use of a cleverly notched shell to produce this decoration
dentate stamping
An example of this is the dragging of a tool to produce shallow lines on the pot
4 types of organic artifacts
bone, shell, wood, plant
4 types of inorganic artifacts
stone, ceramic, metal, glass
4 types of remains
artifacts, ecofacts, features, human remains
3 types of ecofacts
floral, faunal, coprolite
sorting into general types by material or industry
Complete qualitative and quantitative documentation of artifacts and ecofacts prior to formal analysis
classification based on directly observed attributes
primary classification
classification based on inferred or analytic attributes
secondary classification
2 types of classification
taxonomic, paradigmatic
classification based on inferred or analytic attributes
secondary classification
2 types of classification
taxonomic, paradigmatic
Artifacts grouped together based on overall similarity
morphological types
Artifacts tied to specific time periods
temporal types
Artifact collections that are representative of a particular activity or set of activities
functional types
Analysis of the artifact, ecofact, or feature itself to arrive at a chronological evaluation
direct dating
Analysis of material associated with the data under study to derive a chronological evaluation
indirect dating
Determining age or chronological sequence without reference to a fixed time scale
relative dating
Determination of age on a specific time scale, as in years before present, or according to a fixed calendrical system
absolute dating
Techniques used to order materials in a sequence, in such a way that adjacent items in the series are more similar to each other than to items further apart in the series
hard percussion
rock on rock
soft percussion
wood or antler on rock
indirect percussion
Usage of some tool in between the primary tool and what is being made
_____ stone broken into _____ and _____, then ____ and _____
chipped; unifacial, bifacial; tool, decorative object
____ stone broken into ____ and _____
ground; tool, decorative object
granite, basalt, slate used to make ...
ground stone tools
pipestone, argillite, soapstone used to make...
ground stone tools
chert, flint, obsidion, quartz/quartzite used to make...
...chipped stone tools
basalt, shale, slate used to make...
...chipped stone tools
scraper is a...
...unifacial tool
utilized flake is a...
...unifacial tool
gouges/gravers are...
...unifacial tools
projectile points are...
...bifacial tools
blades are...
...bifacial tools
axes/adzes are...
...bifacial tools
drills are...
...bifacial tools
Less oxygen, which leads to blackening effect (e.g., burying)
More oxygen, which leads to reddening effect
Uncontrolled oxygen, leads to uneven red and black coloring called “fire clouds”
Can identify gross method of manufacture
x-ray analysis
Analysis of material remains that adhere to or absorb into the interior surface of a pot
residue analysis
Microscopic analysis of a thin cross-section of pottery
ceramic thin-section analysis
Push stick in from outside
Push stick out from inside to create raised bumps
Plant fibers woven into nets, impressed on pottery
least difficult to interpret
second least difficult to interpret
second most difficult to interpret
social organization
most difficult to interpret
ideological systems
areas of study in order- easiest to most difficult
technology, subsistence, social organization, ideological systems
A generalized comparison that can be documented across many cultural traditions
general analogy
Specific comparisons within a given cultural tradition (then vs. now)
specific analogy
need to show for general analogy:
similarity of cultural and environmental setting
need to show for specificanalogy:
similarity of cultural and environmental setting, cultural continuity
2 components of social environment
physical, conceptual
The ways in which humans and their actions interact with and affect the physical and natural environments
physical social environment
An environment defined by human behaviors independent of place
conceptual social environent
landforms, bodies of water, atmosphere
physical environment
everything that is alive except humans
biological/natural environment