Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
society
people living together and sharing aspects of culture
social structure
relationships that hold society together, system of roes and statuses
social organization
activities and groups that accomplish the work of a society through system of affiliation, rules, and procedures
assumption about social archaeology
past cultures operated in the same basic manner as contemporary ones
an archaeology model of culture
things evident from the archaeological record
cognitive archaeology
the study of past ways of thought as inferred from material remains
symbols
material expressions of ideas and meanings used to: communicate, organize, regulate social relations among people, and regulate social relations between people and supernaturals
kinship
study of households, skeletal analysis--see if people come from different areas
political organization
a specific type of social structure that allocates and distributes power and authority in a society
polity
a group with independent political organization
elman service
four levels of political organization: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states
bands
nonstratified
small scale
hunting and gathering
mobile
tribes
larger societies
chiefs
more permanent settlement
mixed economy
chiefdoms
tens of thousands of people
large, permanent settlements
agriculture/specialists
formal authority
states
millions of people
cities
record keeping
complex infrastructure
labor intensive projects
hydraulic theory was by who?
wittfogel
hydraulic theory
irrigation leads to complex management which leads to state level organization
warfare theory was by who?
leBlanc
warfare theory
agricultural prosperity leads to creation of military for defense and conquest of productive areas
multicausal
each state dvelops through its own particular history of interrelating factors: water, warfare, trade, demographics
cosmology
the understandning of one's universe, its origins, organization, and workings
philosophy
deals with ethics, values, aesthetics
orgal tradition
the narration of stories from one generation to the next--writing, art
iconography
using artistic images to represent aspects of belief systems and other information: numerical systems, hieroglyphics, calendrical systems
art
the creation of aesthetic objects
representational art
paintings, inscriptions, sculptures
rock art
petroglyphs, pictographs, geoglyphs
petroglpyhs
pecked
pictographs
painted
geoglyphs
remove soil or rocks
most archaeological work deals with ___ ____
group behavior
3 basic approaches to change
culture history, cultural ecology, political economy
culture history
changes in traditions
cultural ecology
social changes in relation to the environment
political economy
changes in relationships between social groups
rapid change
a few generations
military conquest/takeover, technological change
slow change
several generations
austrailian aborigines
synchronic change
occurs at about the same time in several places
diachronic change
observed over time
cultures include a set of subsystems... list them
economy, politics, settlements, gender, etc
these subsystems operate together in equilibrium
a change in any produces a ripple effect
evolutionary archaeology
study of the human past through a darwinian view
invention
the creation of a new technology in response to a need
innovation
creating new ways of doing things with preexisting methods and/or technologies
diffusion
movement of materials and ideas... independent invention
migration
the movement of a population from one locality to another... replace or absorbed
diaspora
segments of a population disperse into different areas without replacing the existing population... war or famine
assemblages can be ___ and ___
traced
identified
each culture has a unique cultural ___
assemblage
a population ___ with its assemblage
moves
paleolinguistics
how languages developed
where they originated
when they moved
geographical distribution
cultural contact
diffusion of ideas, technology, and people
acculturation
exchange of cultural features between two societies
syncretism
blending of cultures
culture conflict
competition for territory and resources
trade
the exchange of goods and services
internal exchange
food gifts, offerings
opportunistic external trade
spur of the moment
planned external trade
formal relationship
trade networks
settlement location
warfare
organized conflict between two cultures
native american graves protection and repatriation act of 1990
gives owenership and control of native american human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony that are excavated or discovered on federal land to federally recognized american indian tribes or native hawaiian organizations
the law also establishes criminal penalities for trafficking in human remains or cultural objects, and requires agencies and museums that receive federal funding to inventory those items in their possession, identifiy the descendants of, and repatriate those items
executive order 13007, indian sacred sites
• Instructs all federal land management agencies, to the extent practicable, to accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian practitioners and to avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of those sacred sites
national historic preservation act of 1966
• Mandated that federal agencies consider the potential effect their actions have on historic properties, required states to establish preservation offices to interact with the National Trust, and established an advisory council to liaison with the government’s executive branch
• Defined the role the federal government should take in preservation—emphasizing its leadership, stewardship, and partnership responsibilities
national register of historic places for sites associated with:
historic events
historic people
distinctive types
the possibility to yield new information
section 106... federal agencies responsibilites include:
identifying and evaluating sites in APE (area for potential effect) for the NRHP
survey
mitigation
mitigation
avoid
excavate
other documentation
section 110... federal agencies responsibilites include:
establish HP program to:
ID
evaluate
nominate
protect
advisory council on historic preservation
mediate disagreements between SHPO and federal agencies
UNESCO convention of 1970
provided for the protection of archaeological, biological, and paleontological resources considered part of a country's cultural heritage
unidroit convention of 1995
outlaws stolen or illegally removed cultural objects