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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
branches of archaeology
biblical
egyptian
medieval
classic
maritime
public
archaeological record
the material remains of past human activities and behaviors
artifacts
portable tools, ornaments, or other objects manufactured or used by people to accomplish a specific task
ecofacts
unmodified (nonartifactual) remains of biological materials use by, or relating to, people
features
non-portable objects used or constructed by people
cultural deposition
as people occupy an area, evidence of their presence begins to accumulate
strata
cultural (contains artifacts, ecofacts, and/or features) or geological (sterile) layers
stratification
layering of sediments that results from various depositional processes, both cultural and natural
BCE/CE
BCE = before common era
CE = the common era
basically the same as AD/BC
BP
before present
present = 1950
the normative view
archaeologists assume that behavior, both past and present, is patterned and non-random. cultures have a set of rules or expectations (or norms) that govern a behavior in a particular society. these behaviors will generate a material record that can be recovered and used to interpret past life ways
the 5 stages of classification according to the greek poet Hesoid
age of gold and the immortals, age of silver, age of bronze, age of epic heroes, age of iron
uniformitarianism
natural (geologic) processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present
danish scholar christian j. thomsen
proposed a 3 stage system... stone, bronze, iron
basic chronological periods of the old world
iron age
bronze age
stone age... neolithic, mesolithic, paleolithic (upper, middle, lower)
jean francois cahmpollion
deciphered the Rosetta Stone which included greek and egyptian scripts
archaeology began to emerge a true discipline in the _____. prior to this period, work had been conducted by ______.
late 1800s

antiquarians
(unilinear) cultural evolution
belief that culture develops (or evolves) in a uniform and progressive manner. societies passed through the same stages to arrive at a common end
savagery
technology consisted of stone tools and wilf foods (hunter/gatherer)
barbarism
beginning of agricultural and metallurgy (pastoralist)
civilization
identified by the invention of writing (agriculturalist)
unilinear cultrual evolution stages
savagery
barbarism
civilization
diffusion
geographic movement of traits from one place to another... requires contact
gustav kossinna
manipulated archaeological evidence to suggest that every important invention/idea had originated in germany... suggested that german people had a historic right to land they once occupied
material culture
objects and materials made or altered by human activity
when does something become part of the archaeological record
as soon as it is lost, discarded, abandoned, or cached (stored) by people
locus (loci)
distinct activity areas within a site
locus zones
habitation
burial
work
new world
paleo-indian
archaic
woodland
late prehistoric
historic
deposits
accumulations of cultural and non-cultural material
pedology
the scientific study and classification of soils
pedogenic processes
soil forming processes, dependent on the type of parent material and environmental conditions
anthropogenic soils
soils formed as a result of human activity
middens
site deposits that consist of a decomposed (decomposing) garbage heap
stratigraphy
the study and validation of stratification; the analysis in vertical, time dimension, of a series of layers in the horizontal, space dimension
stratification
layering of sediments that result from various depositional processes, both cultrual and natural
strata
cultrual or geological layers
law of superposition
the strata that were laid down first are the oldest, as long as the strata are not disturbed
context
the location of recovered artifacts/features
context levels
immediate matrix (the material surrounding it), provenience (horizontal and vertical position within the matrix), association with other artifacts/features
primary context
refers to materials found in their original position
secondary context
refers to materials which have been displaced and redeposited by distrubance factors
geofact
natural stone that may resemble an artifact
casual tool (expedient tool)
something used once, was handy, may show little to no use-wear to identify it as an artifact
simple tool
artifact that consists of a single peice
composite tool
a tool formed of two or more joined parts
debitage
waste by-products (debris) from tool manufature
manuport
an unmodified, natural rock, brought into a site by human agency, that shows no sign of alteration
fire cracked rock
not an artifact per se, but was modified by human activity
palynology
the study of pollen
inhuman remains
the disposal of the dead bosy by burial
ossuary
storehouse for human skeletal remains
cremation
burning the dead... usually have some bone fragments left
transformation processes
the various processes by which the archaeological record is transformed over time, such as decomposition and bioturbation
geologic conditions
aggradation
degradation
stability
aggradation
when sediments are accumulating
degradation
when previously deposited sediments and previosuly formed soils are removed by erosion
stability
when erosion and deposition are negligible and during which soil formation may occur
hydrology
the study of water--particularly its geographic distribution and effect
taphonomy
the study of decaying organisms over time. in archaeology, it is the study of what happens to biological materials after they enter the archaeological record. helps us to understand the condition and distribution of recovered materials
pedoturbation
mixing of soils and sediments
bioturbation
the disturbance or movement of deposited materials by organisms
faunalturbation
the disturbance of movement of deposited materials by animals
krotovina
filled in animal burrows
floralturbation
the disturbance or movement of deposited materials by plants
cryturbation
disturbance due to freeze-thaw action in the soil. found in environments where the ground freezes seasonally to varying depths
graviturbation
the down-slope movement and mixing of sediments primarily due to gravity without aid of flowing medium such as air, water, or ice
argilliturbation
disturbance caused by seasonal shrinking and swelling of clayey coils in response to seasonal changes in soil moisture
aeroturbation
disturbance created by the action of air
human agency
the most dynamic force in the alteration of the archaeological record
biological activity
organisms eating organic material
inorganic activity
exposure to the elements
GIS
analyze artifact density and site layout
GPS
accurately map and plot sites
archaeology
the study of the human past through material remains
culture
the total ways of life of any society, not simply those parts which society regards as higher or more desireable
4 sub-cultures of anthropology
physical anthropology
cultural anthropology/ethnology
linguistics
archaeology