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43 Cards in this Set

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Ahab and Omri
Mentioned in List at Karnak written by Sheshonq between 940 and 925 BCE
Omri
Ruled from 884-873 BCE

Probably built the water system at Megiddo
Titus
Son of Roman Emperor Vespasian

Sent to destroy Jerusalem in 70 CE

Burned down Herod's temple (said it was an accident)
Arch of Titus
Shows Roman soldiers taking the treasures from Herod's temple
Ashkelon
Major port city with international goods

Exported wine and olive oil

Contains 700 dog burials

Mentioned by Nebuchadnezzar in the Babylonian Chronicles
Babylon
Follows Neo-Assyrian Empire

Campaigns against Israel lasted from 609-586 BCE
Josiah
First king under Babylonian rule

Last independant ruler of Israel (directly descended from David)
Babylonian Exile
Mentioned in II Kings

Lasted from 598-538 BCE

70% of population probably remained

Nebuchadnezzar leads 4 separate deportations
Babylonian Gap
Supposed 50 year gap in inhabitants of Judah

Ephraim Stern says IS gap

Joseph Blenkinsopp says NO gap
Canaan
Another name for the region of Israel/Palestine etc.
Cyrus the Great
Ruler of Persia (580-529 BCE)
Cyrus Cylinder
Known as the first human rights document

Allowed the Jews in Babylon to return to Jerusalem

Allowed the Jews to rebuild Solomon's Temple
Dead Sea Scrolls
Found outside of Qumran

800 scrolls were found in caves behind Qumran

Includes War Scroll (war between light and dark), Thanksgiving Scroll, Isaiah Scroll, copper scroll, different version of Genesis and many others
Divided Kingdoms
Israel in the north (capital Samaria)

Judah in the South (capital Jerusalem)
When was the Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed?
By 720 BCE at the latest
When was the Kingdom of Israel divided?
between 1000 and 800 BCE (not definite)
Ekron Inscription
approx. 7th century BCE

identifies the site surely Ekron

provides a brief list of kings of Ekron
Eleazar ben Yair
Leader of the Zealots at Masada

Gave the famous speech (told by Josephus) that convinced the Zealots to commit mass suicide
Flavian Amphitheater
Now known as the Roman Coliseum

An elusive inscription found by connecting holes that theoretically were used to keep bronze letters in place.

From this 'new' inscription we see that Vespasian and Titus built the Coliseum with the money looted from the Temple in Jerusalem
Galilee Boat
Buried in lake mud for 2,000 years

Floated it 550 yards to safety
Herod
Initially fortified Masada

Built the Temple Mount

Came to power in 40 BCE

Built the 2nd temple around 19 BCE
(technically the 3rd temple but since Herod employed the priests as carpenters as well, the sacrifices never stopped, since they didn't stop it continued being called the 2nd temple)
Hezekiah's Tunnel
Built by Hezekiah because he anticipated Sennacherib's attack on Jerusalem

It provided Jerusalem with water from the Spring of Gihon
Ishtar Gate
Made of blue-glazed mudbrick

Was the entrance to the city of Babylon

Built around 575 BCE
James Ossuary
Ossuary: A box used for holding the bones of the deceased.

This particular one has an inscription on the side that says “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus”

Oded Golan owns the ossuary

Golan is now being charged with forging this and many other ancient artifacts
Jehoash Tablet
Oded Golan owns it

Inscription talks about the resotration of Solomon's temple

There were little flecks of gold in the letters

Is now considered to be a forgery as well (is one of the artifacts Golan is on trial for)
Black Obelisk
Shalmaneser III – 838 BCE

Jehu (King of Israel) is shown knealing down in front of Shalmaneser
Josephus
Was a Jewish general who predicted Vespasian would become Emperor

Vespasian made Josephus a Roman historian

He made detailed accounts of events including the seige at Masada
Judah
The Southern Kingdom of Israel

Jerusalem was its capital
Josiah
Ruled from 639-609 BCE

Tried to reconstitute the Kingdom of Israel

Last independant ruler of Israel (directly descended from David)
Lachish
2nd largest city in Judah next to Jerusalem

Attacked by Sennacherib in 701 BCE

Have three or four sources accounting its destruction
Megiddo
Located in the Jezreel valley

Has extensive water systems probably built by King Omri

.........
Megiddo Stables
Structures that have been debated for years

Not positive that they are stables

Not sure when they were built
Mesha Stele
Mesha was the king of Moab

9th century

May mention the 'house of David"

Mentions the kings of Israel (including Omri)
Nebuchadnezzar
Attacks Jerusalem from 605-601 BCE and again from 599-586 BCE

Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Destroyed Ashkelon (evidence: Babylonian Chronicles, Archaeology, Bible)
Necho II
Egyptian Pharaoh

Attacked Megiddo in 609 BCE - this is when Josiah was killed

Replaced Jehoahaz (who succeeded Josiah) with Jehoiakim
Oded Golan
On trial for forging the James Ossuary, the Jehoash Tablet, a famous pomegranate, and many other artifacts
What is the progression of empires in the region?
Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Babylonian
Persian
Greek
Roman
Siloam Inscription
Inscription on the wall of Hezekiah's tunnel
Tel Dan Stele
842 BCE

Supposedly mentions "House of David"
Sargon II
Ruled from 722-705 BCE

Claimed to have destroyed Israel, but it may have been Shalmaneser V
Stepped Stone Structure
Originally stood 90 feet tall

Possibly held up the hillside

Not positive what its use was
Tell en-Nasbeh
Jeff Zorn says it is the Babylonian capitol right after the destruction of Jerusalem

Would prove that there was no Babylonian Gap (if he's right and if it dates to the Neo-Babylonian period)
Tiglath Pileser III's Palace
Describes four ways to conquer a city

(Neo-Assyians invented these seige tactics)