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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 areas of study in archaeology, from easiest to hardest
technology, subsistence, social organization, ideological systems
What is the fundamental tool for interpretation in archaeology?
3 sources for analogy
ethnographic/ethnohistoric literature, ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology
2 groups of analogy types
general/specific, formal/relational
general analogy
A generalized comparison that can be shown across many cultural traditions
what do you need to show in a general analogy?
similarity in cultural and environmental setting
specific analogy
A specific comparison within a given culture (then vs. now)
what do you need to show in a specific analogy?
similarity in cultural and environmental setting, show cultural continuity
formal analogy is justified by...
...similarities in form
relational analogy is justified by...
...close cultural continuity or cultural form
social theory comes from...
...general studies of human behaviors/societies then and now
archaeological theory comes from...
...observations and assumptions about patterning in archaeological record
3 parts of environment
physical, biological, social
3 parts of physical environment
landforms, bodies of water, atmosphere
2 parts of social environment
physical, conceptual
humans interacting with physical/natural environment
physical social environment
an environment defined by human behaviors
conceptual social environment
study of the interaction between societies and the environment
cultural ecology
culture uses ____ to adapt
environmental determinism
environment determines behavior
reconstructing a past environment
paleoenvironmental reconstruction
3 tools for paleoenvironmental reconstruction
pollen cores, animal remains, technological reconstruction
analyze pollen cores from ____ to ____
top, bottom
in using animal remains to reconstruct a paleoenvironment...
...look for species restricted to certain environments
3 ways to study resource use
optimal, analogy, empirical
put value on species in a reconstructed environment to study resource use
optimal method
use archaological data to study resource use
empirical method
3 architectural forms at chaco that helped explain social/economic organization
dumps, kivas, great kiva
at chaco, great kiva was used to...
...bring everyone in the pueblo together
at chaco, kivas were used as...
meeting places for religious societies
N canyon wall at chaco
walls eroded into cliffs, topped by plateaus
S canyon walls at chaco
gentle cliffs with absorbent earth underneath
2 areas of study in economic practices
subsistence, exchange
basic social unit
a group can be...
...residential or nonresidential
3 broad areas of social/political behavior
gender, kinship, social status
in bilateral descent, what is the important economic unit?
nuclear family
in patrilineal descent, what is the important economic unit?
in matrilineal descent, what is the important economic unit?
patrilineal descent is characterized by warfare...
matrilineal descent is characterized by warfare...
with distant enemies
see selves as descended from common ancestor
2 clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for each other
2 types of social status
ascribed, achieved
2 societal setups
egalitarian, ranked
a small-scale egalitarian society is called a...
in the cargo system... person carries out and pays for religious ceremonies
in an egalitarian society, everyone is...
in a ranked society, everyone is...
descended from a common, rvered ancestor
in a stratified society, everyone is...
...not related
what determines status in an egalitarian society?
age, gender, personal achievement
what determines status in a ranked society?
closeness of relationship to ancestor
what determines status in a stratified society?
social class
3 reconstruction methods of population size/density
analogy, burial data, carrying capacity calculations