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75 Cards in this Set

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4 types of organic artifacts
bone, shell, wood, plant
4 types of inorganic artifacts
stone, ceramic, metal, glass
3 types of ecofacts
faunal, floral, coprolites
2 types of features
simple, architecture
4 types of remains
artifacts, ecofacts, features, human remains
3 questions in describing ancient artifact technologies
how was it made, what form did it take, what time period/culture does it belong to?
2 types of describing
cataloguing, classification
The cumulative resources of human society that provide the means for nongenetic adaptation to the environment by regulating behavior in three areas
culture
3 areas in which environment regulates behavior
technology, social systems, ideological systems
What is a culture IDed by?
Multiple lines of evidence (not just artifacts)
Artifacts that exhibit certain combination of diagnostic attributes are used to ____ the presence of a culture in the absence of other forms of evidence
suggest
Combinations of attributes that have a restricted spatial and temporal (not cultural) range
diagnostic attributes
diagnostic artifacts may also represent: (3 things)
adaptiation to environment, shared aesthetic, ideological symbol
Human behaviors related to certain artifact types are typically ____ from the form an artifact takes
inferred
How are human behaviors inferred from artifact form?
Analogical reasoning (i.e., it looks like a sword, so it must be a sword)
2 sub-classes of lithics
chipped stone tools, ground stone tools
how are lithics defined?
by methods of manufacture
Lithics produced by the fracturing or flaking of stone to produce usable tools/artifacts
chipped stone tools
chipped stone tools are referred to as a ____technology
subtractive
2 methods of making chipped stone tools
direct, indirect
2 ways to directly make a chipped stone tool
hard, soft
hard direct chipped stone tool production
rock on rock
soft direct chipped stone tool production
wood/antler on rock (use pressure)
Usage of some tool in between the primary tool and what is being made
indirect chipped stone tool manufacture
what is used to determine whether a chipped stone tool is manmade?
bulb of percussion
typically fine grained stone types (4)
chert, flint, obsidion, quartz/quartzite
Tools produced by pecking, grinding, and polishing of stone to produce a tool/artifact
ground stone tools
Fine to medium grained volcanics and sedimentary stones (3)
granites, basalts, slate
What kind of stone is usually used in making chipped stone tools?
Fine grained
What kind of stones are usually used in making ground stone tools?
soft stone or fine to medium grained volcanics and sedimentary types
3 types of soft stones
pipestone, argillite, soapstone
Multi-part tools
composite tools
2 types of chipped stone tools
unifacial, bifacial
Chipped stone tools that were worked on one side
unifacial
Chipped stone tools that were worked on both sides
bifacial
2 types of unifacial chipped stone items
tools, decorative objects
3 types of unifacial chipped stone tools
scrapers, utilized flakes, gouges/gravers
2 types of scrapers
side, end
2 types of bifacial stone items
tool, decorative objects
4 types of bifacial chipped stone tools
projectile points, blades, axes/adzes, drills
2 types of ground stone items
tools, decorative objects
4 types of ground stone tools
axes/adzes, hammerstones, projectile points, mortar/pestle
3 methods of analyzing stone tool manufacture
lithic reconstruction, experimental archaeology, ethnoarchaeology
A method of analyzing the reduction pattern of flaking on chipped stone tools by attempting to backtrack how the flakes were removed
lithic reconstruction
To attempt to reproduce a known form using hypothetical techniques
experimental archaeology
Observe how stone tool using societies today manufacture stone tools
ethnoarchaeology
4 methods of analyzing function of stone tools
use-wear (microwear)analysis, residue analysis, experimental archaeology, ethnoarchaeology
Microscopic examination of the polish found on the used edge of a stone tool
use-wear (microwear) analysis
Chemical analysis of organic or other material
residue analysis
3 general categories of ceramics
pottery, tablets, figurines
what is the finest-grain clay used in ceramics?
kaolin
any fine-grained earth that develops plasticity when mixed in water
clay
Materials added to clay in order to provide for more even heating during firing
temper
3 types of temper
plant fiber, shell, ground igneous rock/limestone (grit)
clay and temper and anything else that is added are referred to as the ____ or ____
fabric, paste
6 methods of pottery manufacture
wheel, coil, slab, paddle/anvil, mold, pinch
Take slabs of clay and pinch them together to shape the pot
slab method of pottery manufacture
Press and shape your pot with a flattened tool into the shape you want
paddle/anvil method of pottery manufacture
Use a previous pottery vessel as a mold on which your clay is shaped
mold method of pottery manufacture
5 methods of decorating ceramics
incising, punctate/embossing, cording, dentate stamping, paint/slips
Plant fibers woven into nets, impressed on pottery
cording
Push stick out from inside to create raised bumps
embossing
Push stick in from outside to make series of punctures
punctate
3 major methods of firing
reducing, oxidizing, open
Less oxygen, which leads to blackening effect (e.g., burying)
reducing
More oxygen, which leads to reddening effect
oxidizing
Uncontrolled oxygen, leads to uneven red and black coloring called “fire clouds”
open
reducing color is...
...black
oxidizing color is...
...red
open color is...
...red and black
3 methods of ceramic lab analysis
x-ray, ceramic thin section, residue analysis
Can identify gross method of manufacture of ceramics
x-ray
Microscopic analysis of a thin cross-section of pottery
ceramic thin section
Analysis of material remains that adhere to or absorb into the interior surface of a pot
residue analysis
ceramic-thin section used to examine these 3 things
temper, clay, manufacture method