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79 Cards in this Set

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The use of annual growth rings in trees to assign calendar ages to ancient wood samples
Tree-ring dating (dendochronology)
Tree-ring dating (dendochronology) developed by
Douglass worked in...
trees are ____ in winter and ____ in spring
dormant, active
Dendochronology helped to date ____
____ collected more samples in Betatakin from building materials in various rooms
Age of the final ring
cutting date
Tree-ring width is a function of ______and _____
precipitation, temperature
Radiocarbon dating discovered by...
What carbon isotope is used in radiocarbon dating?
What do you measure in radiocarbon dating?
Beta emissions
The time required for half of the carbon-14 available in an organic sample to decay
libby half-life
what is the standard libby half-life
When is the present?
AD 1950
what 2 things are hard to date?
bones, plants
The specific chemical process through which plants metabolize carbon; the three major pathways discriminate against carbon-13 in different ways, therefore similarly aged plants that use different pathways can produce different radiocarbon ages
photosynthetic pathways
When organisms take in carbon from a source that is depleted of or enriched in carbon-14 relative to the atmosphere; such samples may return ages that are considerably older or younger than they actually are
reservoir effect
____ was first to find fault in atmospheric assumption
De Vries
- Fluctuations in the calibration curve produced by variations in the atmosphere’s carbon-14 content; these can cause radiocarbon dates to calibrate more than one calendar age
De Vries effects
why is only the part of the site needed to answer the research question excavated?
digging destroys data that we don’t know yet to collect
A method of radiocarbon dating that counts the proportion of carbon isotopes directly (rather than using the indirect Geiger counter method), thereby dramatically reducing the quantity of datable material required
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)
____ found four grains of domesticated barley and one grain of wheat in southern Egypt
Forms of dating that rely upon the fact that electrons become trapped in minerals’ crystal lattices as a function of background radiation; the age of the specimen is the total radiation received divided by the annual dose of radiation.
trapped charge dating
trapped charge dating identifies...
... the last time a specimen had its electron traps emptied
A trapped charge dating technique used on ceramics and burnt stone artifacts- anything mineral that has been heated to more than 500 degrees C.
thermoluminescence doesn't work if...
...artifact was accidentally burned years after manufacture
An early form of humans who lived in Europe and the Near East about 300,000 to 30,000 years ago
3 ways to determing total radiation dose
thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, electron spin resonance
A trapped charge dating technique used to date sediments (dirt); the age is the time elapsed between the last time a few moments exposure to sunlight reset the clock to zero and the present.
optically stimulated luminescence
optically stimulated luminescence works best with...
...eolian sands
A trapped charge technique used to date tooth enamel and buried stone tools; it can date teeth that are beyond the range of radiocarbon dating.
electron spin resonance
___ changed understanding of human evolution
electron spin resonance
A device to measure the amount of gamma radiation emitted by sediments (annual dose). It is normally buried in a stratum for a year to record the annual dose of radiation
what 2 methods are used to date the age of formation of a particular layer of rock?
potassium-argon and argon-argon
An absolute dating technique that monitors the decay of potassium into argon gas
potassium-argon dating
____ was used to estimate age of homo erectus
potassium-argon dating
a hominid who lived in Africa, Asia, and Europe between 2 million and 500,000 years ago. These hominids walked upright, made simple stone tools, and may have used fire
homo erectus
for potassium-argon dating to work,
there must have been no argon trapped at the time of formation
A high-precision method for estimating the relative quantities of argon-39 to argo-40 gas; used to date volcanic ashes that are between 500,000 and several million years old
argon-argon dating
A potential problem with radiocarbon (or tree-ring) dating in which old wood has been scavenged and reused in a later archaeological site; the resulting date is not a true age of the associated human activity.
old wood problem
____ and ____ dated the pyramids through radiocarbon dating on the mortar
Nakhla, Hawass
Nakhla and Hawass dated the pyramids through _____ on the mortar
radiocarbon dating
2 ways to date material remains
direct, indirect
Analysis of the artifact, ecofact, or feature itself to arrive at a chronological evaluation
direct dating
Analysis of material associated with the data under study to derive a chronological evaluation
indirect dating
Determining age or chronological sequence without reference to a fixed time scale
relative dating
Relies on comparisons with other forms of data to determine “older than” or “younger than”
relative dating
Determination of age on a specific time scale, as in years before present, or according to a fixed calendrical system
absolute dating
Example: A series of artifacts found in an excavation that stylistically represent different time periods (dates unspecified) are dated relative to one another
Direct Relative Dating
Example: An artifact is dated using a method like radiocarbon dating to specific year, or spread of years
Direct Absolute Dating
Example: A series of artifacts are extracted from different strata/levels (dates unspecified) of an excavation and are dated relative to one another
Indirect Relative Dating
Example: A series of artifacts are extracted from a strata/level/feature in an excavation that has been dated to a specific time period
Indirect Absolute dating
The date after which an artifact or feature must have been deposited
Terminus post quem
The date before which an artifact or feature must have been deposited
Terminus ante quem
Based on physical comparisons such as stratigraphic placement in relation to other remains
relative dating
Able to date individual items with or without comparisons to other remains
absolute dating
Useful in clearing up questions of duration of time periods in a chronology
absolute dating
Able to place archaeological sites in chronological context if they lack diagnostic information
absolute dating
5 relative dating methods
stratigraphic analysis/geochronology, biostratigraphy, temporal types, seriation, FUN dating
Stratigraphic analysis/geochronology governed by... of superposition
How to date materials found within soil or bedrock layers when they can be dated relative to materials in others
stratigraphic analysis/geochronology
Under what condition can geochronology be absolute?
if the layer of bedrock containing remains has been dated
Why is geochronology considered relative?
the range of dates can be extremely large
Archaeological association of cultural material with extinct animal or plant species
Index fossils (biostratigraphy)
What is comparable to geochronology for obtaining date ranges?
What is a problem with biostratigraphy?
Exact date ranges may not be known for the species
The association of particular remains with remains of a known type
Temporal typing
Techniques used to order materials in a sequence, in such a way that adjacent items in the series are more similar to each other than to items further apart in the series
how is seriation done most often?
by an examination of stylistic attributes
what are the three things that can be looked at for seriation?
stylistic, form, technological
what is seriation usually done in combination with? (2 things)
stratigraphic and frequency analysis
A relative measure that examines the ratio of nitrogen to fluorine and uranium in bone
Flouride/Uranium/Nitrogen (FUN) dating
WHat means a younger date in FUN dating?
More nitrogen
What is FUN dating affected by?
The study of tree ring patterns among trees both living and dead and linking them to develop a continuous chronology
The iron particles in certain materials that are heated to 700 degrees Celsius will reorient to the position of MNP at that time
Requires that materials have been left in place since heating
Measures the amount and rate of the absorption of water on the surface of a piece of obsidian
obsidian hydration
2 factors affecting absorption rate in obsidian hydration
source of obsidian, environmental conditions