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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 steps of processing artifacts and ecofacts
cleaning, conservation, labeling, inventory, cataloging
what 2 kinds of finds are usually processed in 5 steps?
artifacts, ecofacts
why is cleaning done?
to remove obscuring traces of the matrix from the remains.
why is conservation done?
to ensure the preservation of recovered materials
what is conservation dependant on?
the type of material
why is labeling done?
to track a removed find
a designation that links an artifact of ecofact back to the excavation
how does one inventory?
document the numbers and types of remains recovered from a site.
when one inventories, finds can be sorted into general types by _____ or _____.
material, industry
what are the 5 ways to sort in an inventory?
lithic, ceramic, metal, floral, faunal
a complete qualitative and quantitative documentation of artifacts and ecofacts
what is cataloging done prior to?
formal analysis
what is cataloguing usually done with?
coding sheets designed for the particular materials
qualitative uses...
...descriptive attributes
quantitative uses...
...measurable attributes
where does feature documentation occur?
on site
documentation of a feature usually results in...
...destruction of that feature
feature "fill" is
a form of matrix that is within the confines of a feature
feature fill is removed from a feature to (2 reasons)
show size/shape of feature, reveal materials inside feature
the placing of material into categories of types that can be used for identification and comparison
2 types of classification
primary, secondary
primary classification is based on...
...directly observed attributes
secondary classification is based on...
...inferred or analytic attributes
5 ways to primary classify
decoration, shape/form, texture, method of manufacture, raw material
3 ways to secondary classify
function, meaning, chemical make-up
which of the 3 ways to secondary classify are not attributes?
function, meaning
what are the 4 objectives of classification?
impose order, analyze objects based on shared attributes, define differences, suggest relationships
3 attribute categories
stylistic, form, technological
observable (qualitative) or measurable (quantitative) characteristics of physical remains
3 stylistic attributes
color, texture, decoration
form attributes include...
physical characteristics and measurable dimensions
technological attributes include...
raw material characteristics and method of manufacture
2 methods of classification
taxonomic, paradigmatic
takes your initial artifact class (i.e. pottery) and breaks it down into smaller and smaller groups based on the presence/absence of selected attributes
taxonomic classification
all attributes have equal weight and are presented in a table to avoid the implications of the hierarchy
paradigmatic classification
The culmination of classification is the generation of ____
the recognition and definition of shared similarities among artifacts
types can be based on ____, ____, and/or _____ attributes
stylistic, form, and/or technological
3 kinds of types
morphological, temporal, functional
in morphological typing, artifacts are grouped based on...
...overall similarity
in temporal typing, artifacts are grouped based on...
...time period
in functional typing, artifacts are grouped based on...
morphological types are generally independent of...
...function or chronological significance
temporal typing can be used to tell you...
...the general time period a site was occupied
functional types can...
exist in association with a particular site/time period or independent of it
Archaeologists used projectile point typology at Gatecliff because they wanted to...
classify projectile points to make temporal types (time-markers) to test against radiocarbon dates
temporal types can estimate ages where _____ can't
radiocarbon dating
An individual characteristic that distinguishes one artifact from another on the basis of its size, surface texture, form, material, method of manufacture, and design pattern (measurable or observable qualities of an object)
3 attributes of projectile points
size, notch position, notch angle
point types are named by...
the archaeologists who create them
first name of a projectile point refers to...
site or region they were first discovered
last name of a projectile point refers to...
morphological characteristic
3 characteristics of a typology
minimize differences within, maximize differences between; must be objective/explicit
what is the best way to minimize differences within and maximize differences between types?
statistical analyses
temporal types provide us with...
...index fossils
assigning time ranges to projectile point types turns ______types into _____types
morphological, temporal
Who integrated chronological information into a regional framework?
Willey and Phillips
Large regions defined primarily in terms of what people ate (early 20th century)
culture areas
Regions within a cultural area whose material culture (e.g., house styles, settlement patterns, ceramics, or subsistence) differed from one another
Sub-culture areas/traditions/archaeological cultures
archaeological cultures divide...
periods divide...
A length of time distinguished by particular items of material culture
Major cultural transitions, such as the appearance of ceramics, settled life, or agriculture
phases combine... and time
An archaeological construct possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from other units similarly conceived; spatially limited to roughly a locality or region and chronologically limited to the briefest interval of time possible
A block of time that is characterized by one or more distinctive artifact types
phases are defined by...
...temporal types
items of material culture that show patterned changes over time
temporal types
derive temporal types by...
...grouping individual artifacts into morphological types and then testing them against independent data
Types of artifacts that change systematically and observably through time
time markers
A collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (e.g., stone tools, ceramics, bones) that comes from a defined context, such as a site, feature, or stratum
An archaeological construct consisting of a stratum or set of strata that are presumed to be culturally homogeneous
you can cluster assemblages into...
A culturally homologous unit within a single site
components are ____ specific
_____ are the basic units of space-time systematics
____ are ways to track spatial and temporal change in human cultural behavior
_____ are a first step toward developing ideas about regional patterns and trends
length of a phase depends on...
...kind of archaeological remains and our contemporary knowledge of those remains
____ phases tend to be shorter than ____ phases
young, old
chronological control is better for ____ material
phases always defined _____
When divisions in a phase are recognized, initial phase is divided into ____
patterning falls along 3 dimensions:
space, time, form
A culture from the Middle Paleolithic period that appeared throughout Europe after 250,000 and before 30,000 years ago.
____ artifacts are frequently associated with Neanderthal human remains.