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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 steps in field processing
cleaning, conservation, labeling, inventory, cataloging
3 attribute characteristics
stylistic, form, technological
3 dimensions of patterning
space, time, form
2 ways to classify
taxonomic, paradigmatic
taxonomic
Break into smaller and smaller groups based into presence/absence of various attributes
Break into smaller and smaller groups based into presence/absence of various attributes
taxonomic
paradigmatic classification
no hierarchy
classifying creates _____
typologies
_______ creates typologies
classifying
2 ways to define space
cultures, sub-cultures
what are cultures mainly defined by?
what people ate
what are sub-culture areas mainly defined by?
material culture
2 ways to define time
period, horizons
periods are defined by...
...material culture
horizons are defined by...
...cultural traditions
phases define...
...space and time
temporal types
Items of material culture (not just artifacts) that show patterned changes over time
time markers
Artifacts that show patterned changes over time
assemblages
Artifacts of several classes of materials from a defined context
components
Strata/um that are culturally homogeneous (site specific)
many assemblages create...
...components
components are made up of...
...assemblages
many components create...
...phases
phases are made up of...
...components
problem with dendochronology
old wood problem
what do photosynthetic pathways negatively affect?
radiocarbon dating
why are photosynthetic pathways detrimental to radiocarbon dating?
different plants take in carbon in different ways, create different radiocarbon dates
what does the reservoir effect negatively affect?
radiocarbon dating
what do de vries effects negatively affect?
radiocarbon dating
what does the old wood problem negatively affect?
dendochronology and radiocarbon dating
why does the reservoir effect negatively affect radiocarbon dating?
amount of carbon taken in may depend on environment, produces different dates
why do the de vries effects negatively affect radiocarbon dating?
carbon-14 in atmosphere varies, produces different dates
how does accelerator mass spectrometry work?
it counts the carbon isotope proportion directly
how does trapped charge dating work?
Looks at trapped electrons to determine total radiation received
how does thermoluminescence dating work?
looks at last time something was heated
how does optically stimulated luminescence dating work?
looks at last time something was exposed to sunlight
what does electron spin resonance date?
tooth enamel and buried stone tools
what do potassium-argon and argon-argon dating date?
rocks
what does potassium-argon dating measure?
decay of potassium into argon
what does argon-argon dating measure?
relative amounts of different kinds of argon
in direct dating...
the actual remains are analyzed
in indirect dating...
things associated with the remains are analyzed
in relative dating...
...there is no fixed time scale
in absolute dating...
...there is a fixed time scale
how do stratigraphic analysis/geochronology work?
Date materials in dirt layers relative to materials in others
how does one use index fossils/biostratigraphy?
Date cultural material relative to plants or animals
how do temporal types work?
Date remains relative to a known temporal type
How do you date with seriation?
Place things in a sequence
What is FUN dating done on?
bone
What does FUN dating measure
Ratio of F, U, and N
what is the theory behind archaeomagnitism?
Iron particles will point toward position of north pole when they are heated, the position of the NP changes, so this indicates a certain year
what kind of dating is obsidian hydration?
absolute
what kind of dating is archaeomagnitism?
absolute
what kind of dating is FUN?
relative
what kind of dating is temporal typing?
relative
what kind of dating is biostratigraphy?
relative
what kind of dating is stratigraphic analysis?
relative
what kind of dating is geochronology?
relative
culture
All the resources of society that provide ability to adapt to environment
culture changes behavior in what 3 ares?
technology, social systems, ideology
diagnostic attributes are limited in...
...space and time
artifacts can suggest presence of a culture if they have some...
...diagnostic attributes
4 kinds of chipped stone materials
chert, flint, obsidian, quartz/quartzite
3 kinds of ground stone materials
granite, basalt, slate
3 ways to figure out how a lithic is made
lithic reconstruction, experimental archaeology, ethnoarchaeology
how is experimental archaeology used to figure out how a lithic is made?
try to make the lithic, figure out easiest/cheapest method
how is ethnoarchaeology used to figure out how a lithic is made?
look at how people make lithics today
how ae use-wear/microwear analyses used to figure out the function of a lithic?
look at polish on used edge
4 ways to figure out function of a lithic
use-wear/microwear, residue analysis, experimental archaeology, ethnoarchaeology
6 ways to make pottery
wheel, coil, slab, paddle/anvil, mold, pinch
5 ways to decorate pottery
incising, punctate/embossing, cording, dentate, paint/slips
3 ways to analyze pottery
x-ray, ceramic thin-section, residue analysis
4 hide processing tools
flesher, antler tine pressure flaker, bison scapula hoe, awls
biological anthropology
Studies biological nature of humans and their ancestors
bioarcharology
Study human ancestors
physical anthropologists
Study physical characteristics of humans and how they change
forensic anthropologists
Study physical and biological characteristics of human remains
6 ways human tissue preserves
mummies, ice, fire, cannibalism, burial, mineral replacement/fossilization
4 types of burial contexts
mounds, cemetaries, tombs, ossuaries
what is stable isotope analysis used to study?
health
what does stable isotope analysis measure?
ratios of isotopes from bone collagen
what does carbon tell about in stable isotope analysis?
plant resources
what does nitrogen tell about in stable isotope analysis?
marine/land resources
what does strontium tell about in stable isotope analysis?
meat/plant diets
2 indicators of childhood growth arrest
harris lines, enamel hypoplasias
where was iron deficiency anemia found?
stillwater
2 indicators of iron deficiency anemia
porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia
2 ways to study age
epiphyses, pubic symphysis
The ends of bones that fuse to the main shaft or portion of bone
epiphyses
Taphonomic studies try to determine how...
ecofacts (plant and animal remains) end up in sites
taxon
species, genus, family, etc.
used MNI at...
Agate Basin and Chavin de Huanar
Ch'arki was analyzed at...
Chavin de Huantar
What was determined at Stillwater Marsh?
Carbonized seeds had been gathered to eat, figured out because of phytoliths
What was studied at Hidden Cave?
coprolites
What was researched at Mantaro Valley?
wood use
what was studied at Carson Desert (26CH1062)?
bones