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49 Cards in this Set

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Human Origins, about how many years ago?
7-1.9 million years ago
(Ages)
The Cenozoic Era-
The Age of Mammals, ca. 65 MYA to Present
(Ages)
Miocene Epoch-
Primate Evolution, ca. 23.5-5.2 MYA
(Ages)
Pliocene Epoch-
Hominid Evolution, ca. 5.2-1.8 MYA
(Ages)
Pleistocene Epoch-
ca. 1.8/1.6 MYA to 11 KYA ("Ice Age")
(Ages)
The "Ice Age" (Pleistocene Epoch)-
Was actually the Fluctuating temperatures between glacial (cold) periods and interglacial (warm) periods, but mostly cold (thus the term,_____).

Sea level drops during a glacial period (water is locked into ice caps) and rises during interglacial periods (ice melts, returning water to the seas)
(Ages)
Holocene Epoch-
ca. 11 KYA to present (recent warm period.
The Primate Order-
the biological order that contains lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans.
Prosimians-
Suborder of primitive or proto monkeys
Anthropoids-
The suborder of monkeys, apes and humans ("man-like" creatures)
Hominids-
The family of ancestral and modern humans.
Humans(Homo sapiens)
share a common ancestor with the Pongids some ca. 8-6 MYA
Fossil Ancestors: Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines-Consist of-
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Orrorin tugenensis
Ardipithecus ramidus
Australopithecus anamensis
Kenyanthropus platyops
Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus bahreghazali
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus garhi.
Where is the earliest evidence for hominid and human fossils found?
Africa ("the cradle of human kind") and nowhere else.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Sahelanthropus tchadensis
7-6 MYA. Not sure what looked like.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Orrorin tugenensis-
6-5 MYA. Not sure what looked like.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Ardipithecus ramidus-
4.5 MYA, Do not know what looked like.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Australopithecus anamensis
4.17-4.0 MYA, Chimpansee-like.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Kenyanthropus platyops-
3.5-3.2 MYA, Chimpansee-like
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Australopithecus afarensis-
(3.75)3.5-3.0 MYA, Chimpansee like
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Australopithecus bahrelghazali-
3.5-3.0 MYA, Chimpansee-like.
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Australopithecus africanus-
3.0-1.5 MYA, Chimpansee-like
(Our fossil ancestors)/(Pre-Australopiths and Australopithecines)

Australopithecus garhi-
2.5 MYA, Chimpansee-like
Fossil Ancestors: Robust Australopithecines-
3.0-1.0 MYA. Consists of:
Paranthropus aethiopicus
Paranthropus boisei
Paranthropus robustus
(Fossil Ancestors: Robust Australopithecines)

Paranthropus aethiopicus-
2.7-2.3 MYA, Gorrilla-like
(Fossil Ancestors: Robust Australopithecines)

Paranthropus boisei-
2.3-1.3 MYA, Gorrilla-like
(Fossil Ancestors: Robust Australopithecines)

Paranthropus robustus-
2.0-1.5 MYA, Gorrilla-like
Fossil Humans:
Homo habilis
Homo rudolfensis
Homo ergaster
Homo erectus
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo antecessor
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens
(Fossil Humans)

Homo habilis-
ca. 2 MYA
(Fossil Humans)

Homo rudolfensis-
ca. 2 MYA
(Fossil Humans)

Homo ergaster-
1.9-1.6 MYA
Brain capacity of about 750cc.
(Fossil Humans)

Homo erectus-
1.6 MYA-50 KYA (???),
Brain capacity of 775-1300 cc/ about 1000 cc avg.
(Fossil Humans)

Homo heidelbergensis-
800-130 KYA
(Fossil Humans)

Homo antecessor-
>780 KYA
(Fossil Humans)

Homo neanderthalensis-
200-27 KYA,
Brain capacity of 1000-1500cc
(Fossil Humans)

Homo sapiens-
130 KYA- Present (130 KYA in Africa; 90 KYA in Mid-East),
Brain capacity of 1350cc
First humans suggested characteristics:
-Absolute brain size of 600 cc
-Possession of language (inferred from brain casts)
-Precision grip and opposable thumb
-Stone tool manufacturing (2.5-2.6 MYA)

Problems: 1) the brain size threshold appears to be crossed later when it exceeds 1000 cc with H. erectus; 2) language cannot be inferred from brain casts; 3) chimps and Australopithecines had opposable thumbs (and if chimps can make tools, A. could also probably make tools); 4) stone tools date to a period when either Australopithecines or Homo could have been the first tool makers.
Bipedalism
6-4.5 MYA
Butchering-
2.5 MYA
Stone Tool Technology:
Pre-Oldowan
Oldowan
Acheulean
Mousterian
Upper Paleolithic
(Stone Tool Technology:)
Pre-Oldowan-
3.1-2.6 MYA, Australopithecus?/ Early Homo
(Stone Tool Technology:)
Oldowan-
2.6-1.5 MYA, Australopithecus?/ Early Homo
(Stone Tool Technology:)
Acheulean-
1.5 MYA- 200 KYA,
H. erectus
(Stone Tool Technology:)
Mousterian-
200-40 KYA,
H. Neanderthalensis/ H. Sapiens
(Stone Tool Technology:)
Upper Paleolithic-
90/40-12 KYA,
H. Neanderthalensis/ H. sapiens
Larynx-
Voice box
High larynx-
Most mammals have this. It limits sound production.
Low larynx-
Humans have this. Allows for the production of a greater range of sounds (acts sort of like an "echo chamber")
Some analyzation of the skull-
Australopithecines had flat skull bases (4-1 MYA), H. erectus had a slightly curved skull base (1.5 MYA), and that modern curvature to the skull base was reached only about 300 KYA (suggesting that prior to 300 KYA, hominids had a limited range of sound production).