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21 Cards in this Set

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Homo erectus and Homo sapien begginings where around about when?
About 1.9 million - 40,000 years ago
The Pleistocene: The Lower Pleistocene:
-1.8/1.6 MYA-730 KYA
-Marked by a reversal in Earth's magnetic polarity ca. 1.8 MYA and shifting climates (primarily cold glacials, but interspersed with warmer intergalcials)
Where, when and during what time period did Homo Erectus evolve?
evolves in Africa ca. 1.9 MYA and spreads to Europe, Asia and SE Asia by 1.8-1.6 MYA (ca. 730 KYA at least in S Europe)

During the Lower Pleistocene.
The Pleistocene: The Middle Pleistocene
-ca. 730-128 KYA
-Marked by a shift in Earth's magnetic polarity from reversed to normal ca. 730 KYA
-Major glacial episode ca. 525 KYA (Elster)
Interglacial warming between 515-315 KYA during which Homo erectus settlements appear to have taken hold in colder latitudes (Europe and Asia/ China)
-Major glacial episode ca. 180-128 KYA corresponded with evolution and spread of modern Homo sapiens.
-By the end of this period, modern H. sapiens were beginning their global journey of expansion.
Fire discovered?
First indisputable evidence for the use of fire is found in China and dates to ca. 700 KYA (earlier evidence in Africa at Chesowanya and Swartkrans dates to ca. 1.6 MYA but is disputed)
Homo erectus to Asia:
-By 1.7 MYA, H. erectus had reached Dmanisi, Georgia (Central Asia) and by 1.8-1.6 MYA had reached SE Asia (Java) [both of these findings are relatively recent and the ages contested]

- By 600-200 KYA, H. erectus was in N and Central China at Zhoukoudian Cave and other sites, occupying northern cool temperate zones, using Fire, and manufacturing chopper/chopping tools.
H. Erectus technology-
-Oldowan is the earliest associated with H. erectus.
-Acheulean is what H. erectus used most. ca. 1.5 MYA- 200 KYA.
Homo Neanderthalensis-
-Lasted from ca. 200-28 KYA
-appear to have been a European cold-adapted (glacial period) species.
- Used Mousterian tools for the most part. ca. 250/200-40 KYA
-Created composite tools (tools made of more than one component.)
-Some evidence exists that Neanderthals "buried" their dead (is this burial or simply corpse disposal?)
-Possible conception of an afterlife.
Homo sapiens:
-evolved (it is assumed from H. erectus or other earlier forms) ca. 400-200 KYA.
-spread from Africa into Asia and Europe perhaps as a result of changing climates between ca. 130-24 KYA.
(Debate over origin of humans)

Multiregional (Continuity) Model:
-Suggests H. erectus populations around the world evolved independently into archaic H. sapiens and then into modern H. sapiens.
-Suggests there were multiple origins (multiple evolutions0 of H. sapiens.
-Suggests there were no migrations later than H. erectus.
-Suggests modern geographic populations have been separated for perhaps 2 million years.
-These geographic populations may represent the initial formation of the different races perhaps 2 MYA.
-Is not a supported Model, there is no proof for it.
(Debate over origin of humans)

The Out of Africa (Replacement) Model:
-H. sapiens evolved in one place (Africa) and then spread to other parts of the world.
-There was a single origin (single evolution) of H. sapiens.
-The model assumes H. sapiens population movement from a single point of origin into other areas, and a replacement of archaic populations (H. erectus, archaic Homo, Neanderthals) by modern H. sapiens
-Modern geographic populations (races) have shallow roots and derive from a single source in relatively recent times.
-Most genetic/ fossile evidence for support of this model. Therefore this model is supported. (At least more often then the other)
Where is one place that some of the earliest modern humans lived?
Klasies River Cave, South Africa. About 120,000 years ago.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-
-Is inherited through the female line only and does not recombine with male DNA.
-Studies of this indicate that all modern humans derive from an African population 120-240 KYA which migrated to the rest of the world with little or no interbreeding with archaic human groups.
Eve Hypotheses?
-studies of groups of women using mtDNA indicate that all modern humans derive from an African population 120-240 KYA which migrated to the rest of the world with little or no interbreeding with archaic human groups.
XYZ locus-
-Inherited through the male line only.
-reveals similar results as mtDNA.
What range of time does the earliest archaeological evidence for anatomically moder humans date? Where?
190-100 KYA, in Africa.
Modern Humans-
-Created a sophisticated stone tool technology based on: Antler, Bone, Wood, and Stone blades.
-around Upper Paleolithic time. (Late Paleolithic)
Oldowan consists of...
Choppers and flakes.
Acheulean consists of...
Hand axes.
Mousterian consists of...
Scrapers and points.
Upper Paleolithic (tools)consists of...
Blades.