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15 Cards in this Set

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The Neolithic:
-"The period in which a pattern of village settlement based on subsistence farming & stockbreeding became the basis of existence for communities."
-Dates from ca. 11,500 - 8,000/6,000 YA (9,500-6,000/4,000 B.C.)
Where various ecological zones meet.
(Climate Change):
-Col climate of the Younger Dryas event (ca. 10,000 B.C.) seems to be when initial plant domestication took ROOT.
Abu Hureyra, Syria:
-10,500-6,500 B.C. (12.5-8.5 KYA)
-Early evidence for agriculture & stock raising ca. 10,500- 10,000 B.C.
-Began as a small village with people living in pit houses with reed roofs
-Thousands of wild einkorn & rye seeds have been recovered.
-Also hunted wild gazelles killed en masse & preserved meat
-By 10,000 B.C. farming was based on rye, einkorn & lentils
-Women ground the grains & suffered from arthritis & deformation of the knees, ankle joints & toes
-By 9,000 B.C. the village had grown to 12 ha (30 acres) & switched rapidly from wild gazelles to domesticated sheep & goats.
-Eventually the village reached 300-400 people until arid conditions & resource depletion (e.g., lack of firewood) caused them to move away.
Artificial mound created by peoples living.
Netiv Hagdud, Israel:
-10,000 B.C. (12 KYA)
-13 km N of Jericho
-Village of oval and round mud brick houses flourished for about 300 years
- 30 families or 100-200 people lived on a tributary of Jordan River.
-Hunted gazelle, fish, waterfowl, collected 50+ species of wild plants , incl. cereal grasses harvested with flint sickles and stored in storage bins (semi-tough rachis two-row barley)
Jericho, Israel:
-10,000 B.C. onward (12 KYA onward)
-Covered 4 ha (9.8 acres), very large for the time
-Did not use ceramic vessels
-Built massive walls & moats or ditches around the settlement & a tower.
-Dwellings were located within the defensive walls.
-Dead were buried within the settlement, sometimes under house floors as at 'Ain Ghazal, Jordan, & sometimes severed heads molded & painted in plaster would be deposited in caches or clusters perhaps as form of ancestor worship.
(Zagros Mtns. & Mesopotamia: Hill & Mountain Farming Villages)
Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq:
-10,500 B.C. (12.5 KYA)
-Hunters of wild goats, living in small circular huts, killing large #s of immature sheep, later come to rely more on cereal grasses. (Based on pollen studies.
(Zagros Mtns. & Mesopotamia: Hill & Mountain Farming Villages)
Ganj Dareh:
-10,000 B.C. (12KYA)
-A seasonal camp becomes a small village by 8000 B.C. with 2 storey mud brick houses with lower level storage facilities.
-Permanent settlement in hte mountains began here with evidence for goat & cattle hearding & possible agriculture.
-Animal bones indicate a reliance on immature males & older females, suggestive of herd management.
(Zagros Mtns. & Mesopotamia: Hill & Mountain Farming Villages)
-7,000 B.C. (9 KYA)
-A permanent village SW of Zawi Chemi Shanidar.
-25 mud brick houses with storage bins and clay ovens
-Evidence of agriculture includes seeds of barley, emmer wheat, etc., sickle blades, grinding stones, & bones of sheep & goats, with 80% of food coming from herds or crops.
-Exotic trade goods are present (obsidian, shell, turquoise) along with clay tokens.
Old name for Turkey
Refers to Israel, Lebanon, and Syria.
Three Independent/Separate Custers of Agricultural Development (until about 6000 B.C.):
-Eastern Mediterranean Coast
-The Highlands
Two Stages of Agricultural Development:
1. Some agriculture & animal domestication, but much of diet still derived from wild plants & animals (pre 6000 B.C.)
2.More productive cereal grains emerge accompanied by full blown domestication of cattle, sheep, goats & pigs (post 6000 B.C. until historic times).
Emerging Social Complexity:
Adorned burials & evidence for possible ranking (ancestor worship?) at Catalhoyuk & possibly Jericho.
-Increasing trade & record keeping
-Religious rituals or cults
-the formation of towns or "protocities."
-set the stage for the Rise of Civilization in the Middle East (SW Asia).