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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Several long-term technological developments that went hand-in-hand: (Late-end of Ice age/ Early Halocene):
-Diminution of Toolkits
-Bows and Arrows
-Specialized Toolkits
-Intensive Exploitation-of locally abundant and predicatble resources such as salmon or nuts.
(Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe): Two main life style models.
-Lower latitudes supported somewhat generalized environments where highly mobile bands exploited evenly dispersed animal and plant resources, shifting camp regularly as local resources were exhausted.

-Higher-latitude environments were more uneven in productivity and resource reliability, having few species in large numbers. These were specialized environments, where human groups moved less often and frequently directed their moves toward the exploitation of single seasonal resource such as caribou. Larger numbers of people sometimes congregated for seasonal hunts.
Star Carr-
-Northeastern England.
-One of the first Stone Age locations dug with environmental experts on site.
-Came to light in 1947, John Moore.
-Radiocarbon Dated to 7538 +/- 350 B.C.
Mesolithic subdivisions:
-Maglemose Period (7500-5700 B.C.)
-Kongemose Period (5700-4600 B.C.)
-Ertebølle Period (4600-3200 B.C.)
(Mesolithic subdivisions)
Maglemose Period-
-A time of seasonal exploitation of rivers and lakes, combined with terrestrial hunting and foraging.
-Inland, late spring and early summer settlements are represented by the Ulkestrup site in Denmark.
(Mesolithic subdivisions)
Kongemose Period-
-Mainly on Baltic Sea coasts, along bays and near lagoons, where people exploited both marine and terrestrial resources.
-Many sites somewhat larger than Maglemose ones.
-Segebro settlement, now submerged in brackish water near the southwestern Swedish coast.
(Mesolithic subdivisions)
Ertebølle Period-
-Was the culmination of Mesolithic culture in southern Scandinavia.
-Very wide range of food resources.
-Aggersund site in Denmark.
-Technology was far more elaborate than that of its Mesolithic predecessors.
Vedbaek Bogebakken-
-Cemetery in Denmark.
-Characteristic of greater social complexity of the Mesolithic. (Ertebølle)
(Hunter-Gatherer Complexity)
Attributes of Greater Complexity of Hunter-gatherer:
-Higher than normal pop., concentrated in relatively small and restricted territories, such as individual river valleys, where movement is circumscribed by either geography or neighbors.
-A more intensive, more diversified, and more specialized food quest.
-A system of food storage and preservation.
-Permanent and nearly permanent settlements, often base camps of much greater size than in earlier times.
-Highly developed hunting, fishing, or plant-processing equipment.
-Division of labor not only by sex and age but also by activity, such as whale hunting, or a craft specialty like canoe building.
-Some form of simple social ranking, probably based on differences between lineages or other kin groupings, such as wealth, diet, and burial customs.
-Often, intensive exchange in exotic objects and raw materials with neighboring groups.
-More elaborate ritual beliefs and ceremonial life.
When did the Ice Age end?
After 13,000. It usered in the beginning of the Holocene period.