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21 Cards in this Set

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(African Hunter-Gathers, Past & Present)
Klasies River Mouth Cave-
-120 - 70 KYA
- People ate game, vegetable foods & marine resources. (Broad Spectrum Subsistence)
(African Hunter-Gathers, Past & Present)
Nelson's Bay Cave-
-15 KYA
- People ate eland, hartebeest, bush pigs, warthogs; fish was caught with nets & hooks, marine birds were eaten.
(African Hunter-Gathers, Past & Present)
Eland's Bay Cave-
- 13 - 8 KYA
-13 KYA, hunted large & medium antelop
- 11-9 KYA, smaller browsing animals, estuarine & marine animals & limpets were hunted & gathered.
-8 KYA, small browsing animals, mussels & fish were hunted and collected.

*-* Climate changed from colder conditions of the Pleistocene ca. 13 KYA to warmer conditions between about 8-5 KYA(sea also rises)... Switch to other food necessarey.(Large mammals going extinct too)
Gwisho Hot Springs & Ethnographic Analogy-
-Gwisho Zambia, 3 KYA
-4 campsites in area of bubbling hot springs
- Waterlogged sites have preserved arrowheads, grinding stones, bone...etc.
- Provides some evidence of African Kalahari San Bushmen lifeways in prehistoric times with similarities to present-day practices
-Present day San camps hold 10-30 people; evidence from Gwisho is similar.
(Island Hopping to Indonesia, New Guinea, & Australia)
Who encounted Australian Aborigines in ca. 1770s?
Captain James Cook
Island Hopping to Indonesia, New Guinea, & Australia-
- Austrailian Aborigines were still living in the "Stone Age"
-Where did these people come from?
-Land areas, the Sunda & Sahul Shelves, connected large portions of SE Asia, & narrow ocean channels separated islands. (Borneo, Sulawesi, Australia & NG were attached; Australia & Tasmania were attached)
-Watercraft would still have been required to travel to many of these areas.
What created Sahul and Sunda?
Late Ice Age. In Southeast Asia low sea levels exposed dry land off mainland Asia and between Australia and New Guinea during the last glaciation.
About when did H. sapiens occupy Sahul area?
-No H. erectus remains have been found in Sahul, so it appears modern H. sapiens occupied the area by 75 KYA and could have started the colonization process sometime after that(sea levels would have been higher at most tiems & lowest around 20 - 18 KYA, the time of the Last Glacial Maximum)
Prehistoric Seafarers-
-Settlement of the Sahul areas suggests the earliest use of seafaring abilities by humans (weather accidental or deliberate is unknown).
Modern Humans in Asia & Australia-
-H. sapiens had to pass through Asia to get to Australia which was reached at least 40 KYA (some say 60 KYA)
-Boats had to have been used to cross 100 km of open ocean
-The entire continent of Australia was occupied by 30 KYA with good dated sites like Lake Mungo (32KYA) with fully modern skulls similar to modern Aboriginies
-There are Upper Paleolithic tools & cave paintings dated to 17 KYA in Australia, with the first polished tools dating to 15 KYA.
(New Guinea & Surrounding Islands)
When is the earliest evidence for settle ment of New Guinea? Where? What evidence?
Dates to 40 KYA at Bobongara with waisted ground axes buried beneath a layer of volcanic ash.
New Guinea & Surrounding Islands-
- Human settlements were on New Ireland to the NE of Neew Guinea by 35 KYA where people were living in limestone caves, fishing, shellfish collecting, & hunting bats, reptiles & birds.
-By 20 KYA, obsidian was being collected from a source 350 km away across open water & traded across the channel to people 30 km (19 miles away) (implies regular boating expeditions)
(New Guinea & Surrounding Islands)
Kilu Rock Shelter-
-On Buka Island, NW solomons was inhabited 28-20 KYA requireing open water travel of 130-180 km (81-112 miles).
David Cole-
-Undergraduate student.
-In 1966, the UW sent him to investigate over 70 archaeological sites in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.
-Artifacts he collected make up one of the most important collections from the region, and include evidence about the first colonization of the island of New Guinea by humans over 35 KYA.
Australian Sites-
-Definitely settled by 35 KYA (firm dates) & perhaps as early as 50-60 KYA (disputed)
-Humans could have walked from New Guinea throughout ____ and into Tasmania because sea levels were lower during parts of the Late Pleistocene.
--Devil's Lair Cave, 32,500 YA/ 23-10 KYA
--Purritjarra Rock Shelter, 27-4 KYA
--Lake Mungo, 26 KYA, artifact scatter
--Koonalda Cave, 24-13 KYA, stone quarry & cave art site.
--Malangangerr Rock Shelter, 19 KYA (perhaps 30 KYA), ocher "pencils" with traces of wear used to decorate cave walls.
--Manhill, petroglyphs or rock engravings may date to 31-14 KYA (based on desert rock varnish dating technique-experimental).
Persistence of Homo erectus traits amoung ____ & _____???
New Guinea & Australian Aborigines. (Possibly)
Tasmania-
-Was connected to Australia for almost half the last ice age (55 K years) (sea levels lower) (Temps. were 6-7° cooler)
--Parmerpar Meethaner Rock Shelter, 34,000 to 780 YA
--Wareen Cave, 35 KYA
--ORS 7 & Bluff Rock Shelters, 30,800-30,500 YA, emu eggs collected for food & perhaps tools.
--Kutikina Cave + 20 other caves, 20-14 KYA, red wallablies huntd for food(used in some shoes today)
--Bone Cave, 17-13 KYA
-Use of Darwin [meteoritic] glass (like obsidian) for tools & painting of hand stencil designs common throughout the area
(Tasmania)
When were Tasmanian Aborigines contacted? By who later? When did they go extinct?
1st in 1642, & again in 1772 by French explorer Marion du Fresne; extinct by 1882.
Prehistoric & Aboriginal Australia / Tasmania-
-Population densities were always quite low- maybe 300,000 on entire continent
-Stone tool technologies were very conservative & experience little change over 1000s of years
-Devil's Lair Cave has yielded evidence of removed teeth, a long-time cultural practice amoung Aborgines esp. in boys' initiation rituals.
-Tasmanians were isolated from developments in Australia when sea levels rose at the end of the ice age: NO boomerangs, spearthrowers, shields, axes,adzes,etc.
-Ethnoarchaeologists have studies African Aboriginies & found 6000-5000 year old stone tools with modern counterparts still in use - to the point that they could determine which prehistoric tools had been hafted or not.
(Prehistoric & Aboriginal Australia / Tasmania)
What is it called when modern shelter sites have many similarities to prehistoric campsites?
Ethnographic Analogy
Ethnographic Analogy-
Using lifeways of living or recent cultures to help understand lifeways of past cultures.