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42 Cards in this Set

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When and how did the first americans set foot in the New World? Who were they?
Between about 25 - 12.5 KYA by way of the Bering Land Bridge (Beringia)when the sea level was lower during a glacial period. The Paleoindians.
(First Americans)
What does the Early Entry School (Pre-clovis School) argue? (minority)
that the Americas were colonized during the Wisconsin glaciation, perhaps 42 KYA or earlier.
(First Americans)
What does the Late Entry School (The Clovis School) argue?
That the Americas were colonized at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation perhaps only 15 KYA or even later (by 10-12 KYA)
Sinodonty-
"Chinese tooth," KYA in N. China
(Christy Turner's Sinodont Theory(1984))
What suggests that American Indians derive from a single Asian population? Which Asian population most closly related to?
Molecular biology. Most closely related to Mongolians.
What is some Biological Evidence that supports Asian Origins of American Indians?
-Blood type primarily type "0."
-Copper colored skin
-Black, straight hair
-Asian or almond-shaped eye, sometimes with epicanthic fold ("Asian eyelid")
-Lack of immunity to European diseases due to thousands of years of genetic & geographical isolation.
(Linguistic Evidence for first Americans)
Amerind-
-North & South American Indian languages are derived from this single ancestral language.
-The oldest language group in the Americas
--Amerinds migrated into N & S America before 11 KYA.
(Linguistic Evidence for first Americans)
Who was the main person involved in this Linguistic Evidence Research? (Linguistic Hypothesis)
-Greenberg 1956
-His research has been severely criticized, but it does not contradict the dental or genetic evidence.
(Linguistic Evidence for first Americans)
Na-Dene-
-2nd major language group
--Na-Dene peoples migrated to N America around 9 KYA
(Linguistic Evidence for first Americans)
Aleut-Eskimo-
-3rd major language group
--Aleut-Eskimos migrated to the norther Arctic regioin around 4 KYA.
(Linguistic Evidence for first Americans)
What are the 3 major "language families of the N & S American Indians?
1. Amerind
2. Na-Dene
3. Aleut-Eskimo
When was the Last Glacial Maximum?
Ca. 19-20 KYA. During which time the sea was at its lowest.
Ice Sheets & Land Bridges:
-Glaciers in the N Hemisphere were up to 2-3 km thick.
- Sea levels were 100 m plus (330 ft plus) lower than today.
-Beringia formed
-Large grazing mammals would have been attracted to the grasslands and hunters would have followed.
(Ice Sheets & Land Bridges)
When does Human settlement of extreeme NE Siberia date to?
18 KYA, migration to Americas would have been later.
(Ice Sheets & Land Bridges)
What did the Bering Lang Bridge connect and when?
More about Beringa-
Siberia to Alaska during extreme cold periods between 75-45 KYA & 25-11 KYA.
-It was a treeless arctic plain covered with grasses, sedges & mosses with thin roots, little soil formation, & vegetation instability... No Firewood!
(To Alaska)
Earliest Alaskan sites date to when?
Just after 12 KYA
To Alaska-
-Some suggest an "Ice Free Corridor" allowed passage from Alaska to interior N America (outdated idea)
-Archaeological sites represent Upper Paleolithic technology w/ links to Asia.
-Second greatest migration in human history, after the migration out of Africa.
(To Alaska)
What are some archaeological sites that provide evidence for human occupation of Alaska?
-Broken Mammoth, 13,700 YA (Stone tools & animal bones)
-Swan Point, 13,700 YA (Microblades & swan bones)
-Dry Creek I, 13,500 YA (...)
-Dry Creek II, 10,700 YA (Microblades)
-Walker Road, 13,400-13,100 YA (...)
-Mesa, Clovis-type points dating to ca. 12,000 YA.
(South of Ice Sheets)
Meadowcroft Rockshelter-
-Dated to 16-10 KYA (70+ C-14 dates)
-Earliest human occupation now dated to ca. 14,500-13,500 YA
-This site has been criticized for having been contaminated by W Pennsylvanian coal getting into the cave & altering the dates.
South of Ice Sheets-
-Mammoth kill sites in Virginia & Florida date to ca. 14 KYA (Big Salt Lick, VA)
-Cactus Hill Paleoindian Site (SE Virginia)
-Possible pre-Clovis points dating to before Palmer/Kirk horizon in Virginia.
(Further South: Central & South America)
Pedra Furada, NE Brazil-
-47 KYA (oldest occupation; or 30,000 - 12,000 YA
-Hearths, pebble tools, painted rocks (earliest rock art in Americas!!!???)
-Early evidence may simply be due to geological, not human, processes.
(Further South: Central & South America)
Monte Verde, Central Chili-
-Possible early occupation @ 33 KYA
-Dated to 14,000-13,800 YA
-Preserved wooden rectangular houses covered with hides.
-Preserved wooden tools, crude stone tools, medicinal & other plant remains, animal meat, mastodon bones, etc.
-BEST EARLY SITE IN THE AMERICAS (PRE-CLOVIS)
Caverna da Pedra Pintada, Brazil-
-ca. 11 KYA
-Shatters stereotypes of the first Americans as purely big-game hunters.
Paleoindians and Clovis-
-By ca. 13,200 YA, the _____ point appears, marking an explosion in the number of Paleoindian sites throughout North America, but lasted only a few hundred years.
-Commonly used to hunt big game adapted to the grasslands of the Great Plains of N. America.
-Meat, when dried, could support dozens or hundreds of people.
(Paleoindians and Clovis)
Clovis kill sites (most likely clovis)-
-Murray Springs, AZ= mammoth & bison kill & butchery site.
-Naco, AZ= 8 points found in a mammoth carcass.
-Blackwater Draw, NM= Mammoth, bison, horse, camel & deer driven into a natural arroyo (gulley).
-Lehner, AZ= 13 Mammoths killed.
Fluet-
In terms of a Clovis, it is at the bottom. It is a chip taken off. Probably to connect to a stick for a spear.
Megafauna Massacre???-
-The extinction of the Pleistocene Megafauna (large mammals)
(Megafauna Massacre???)
Overkill Hypothesis -
Megafauna were killed off by Paleoindian overhunting (cliff drives, mass kills) or since the fauna of N America was not used to man (no fear of humans as predators)
(Megafauna Massacre???)
Climate Change Hypothesis-
Changing climate at the end of the Pleistocene & shrinking habitats for cold-adapted megafauna may have reduced the mammalian population.
(Megafauna Massacre???)
Temperature Extreme Hypothesis-
the great variation in temperatures at the end of the Pleistocene and the strong seasonal contrasts would have been harder on young animals (summers would have been shorter & cooler and winters would have been longer & harsher - hard on baby animals!!!)
(Megafauna Massacre???)
Last Straw Hypothesis-
each of the 3 hypotheses cantain some truth, but human arrival was the final straw for the megafuana.
Broad Spectrum Subsistence-
Focus on smaller animals and plant foods.
Declining Mobility-
Hunting nomads started using base camps that were occupied for many months of the year, establishing claims on territory or "hunting grounds."
Increasing Sedentism-
People started occupying sites most of the year or year-round (more permanent settlements with substantial dwellings, cemeteries, etc.)
Increasing Population Growth-
Especially after 4 KYA (2000 B.C.) in river valleys & other favorable habitats
General Chronology of the Americas:
-Paleoindian Period (35,000?- 11,000 B.P.) Arrival of American Indians to end of Pleistocene.
-Archaic Period (11,000-4,000/2,500 B.P.) Beginning of Holocene to invention of pottery.
-Formative Period (4,000/2,500 B.P.- A.D. 1) Invention of pottery to rise of first states.
-Classic Period (A.D. 1-900/1,000) Rise of first states to major state collapses.
-Post Classic Period (A.D. 900/1,000-1,500) Major state collapses to arrival of the Spanish & Europeans.
General Archaeological Sequence for the Middle Savannah River-
Bottom Left of PG. 7 of the Chapter 5 Outline notes.
Native American (North American) Culture Areas-
1. Artic
2. Subartic
3. Norhteast
4. Great Plains
5. Plateau
6. Northwest Coast
7. Southeast
8. Southwest
9. Great Basin
10. California
11. Mesoamerica
12. Ciircum-Caribbean ("Intermediate Area")
(Native American Culture Areas)
Who was this concept solidified by?
Clark Wissler in 1917
(Native American Culture Areas)
Culture Area-
a geographic region where numerous societies follow similar patterns of life.
(Native American Culture Areas) Initially developed why?
-Culture areas were initially developed as an organization response to the need to deveolop museum displays.
--Key individuals were Otis T. Maso(18 enviromental zones) & Clark Wissle (food areas)
-
(Native American Culture Areas) More on Culture Areas:
Wissler subsequently developed material culture areas
-Culture areas were seen to reflect clusters of behavior that often reflected similar adaptive strategies (has obvious ecological implications)
-Culture areas could be defined by trait lists (traits uniquely present plus traits uniquely absent)
--If traits could be directly observed in the ethnographic present, then they could also be observed archaeologically...thus, the concept of archaeological areas became legitimate.