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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Upper (Late) Pleistocene-
-128-10 KYA
-Intense glacial conditions existed ca. 75 KYA and ca. 29-18 KYA
-Last Glacial Maximum ca. 18 KYA with sea levels down ca. 130 m (426 ft) below modern levels.
-Average temp. worldwide was about -7°C lower than today w/ temps near the glacial front -15.5°C (-60°F)
-Vegetation was different w/ cold species and biomes (e.g., tundra) found further south; some desert areas were actually wetter during the Last Glacial Maximum than today (e.g. Sahara, S. African deserts, US SW)
-Rainforests were smaller and compressed into low areas
(Upper Pleistocene)
Eemian Interglacial-
-128-118 KYA (or 126-116 K B. C.)
-A warm period (Modern H. Sapiens)
(Upper Pleistocene)
Weichsel Glaciation-
-Begins 118 KYA
-European and N. American ice sheets expand and sea levels were down ca. 70 m (230 ft)
How long ago were H. sapiens living in SW Asia (aka Middle East)? Where did they migrate from?
By about 100 KYA, having migrated from Africa.
What in Israel indicates that Neanderthals and H. sapiens were living in the same region at roughly the same time? About what time?
Cave sites. About 92-45 KYA.
What, ca. 45 KYA, suggests that H. sapiens, or at least the ________ most frequently associated w/ them, replaced archaic _______ &/ or peoples (e.g., Neanderthals)?
The Upper Paleolithic (blade & bone based) tool technology.
Upper Paleolithic Transition-
Checkout bottom right of PG. 2 of chapter 4 Outline notes.
What acted like the Swiss Army Knife?
Blade technology. Top right Pg. 3 Outline notes
Characteristic artifacts used by Paleolithic groups in western Europe:
-bone points
-Solutrean points
-chisel-ended burin
"Cultural Explosion" or "Mental Explosion" of the Upper Paleolithic-
-Modern H. sapiens in Mid East began to burn their dead w/ animal jaws ca. 100 KYA.
-Real "cultural explosion" did not occur until about 50-30 KYA:
= 50 KYA, blade technology in SW Asia (Middle East)
= 40 KYA, art objects appear in Europe.
= 35 KYA, Australia is settled
= 30 KYA, rapid cultural change is found virtually worldwide w/ the exception of the Americas (the "last frontier" of the Paleolithic)
"Cultural Explosion" and Replacement of the Neanderthals-
Neanderthals & H. sapiens apparently coexisted in Europe for at least several thousand years, w/ Neanderthals using Upper Paleolithic technology as revealed in some cave sites(e.g. St. Cesaire, France, ca. 36 KYA)
-By 33 KYA, modern H. sapiens were the only remaining hominid in Europe w/ their population represented by the so-called Cro-Magnon (named after the rockshelter of the same name near Les Eyzies, France)
What are some possibilities of how H. sapiens replaced Neanderthals?
1. Ecological competition
2. Out Breeding
3. Genocide
What are some traits of the Cultural Explosion in Europe and Elsewhere?
-Higher pop. densities post 33 KYA, esp. in European river valleys
-More regulare social gatherings
-More stylistic variation in stone & bone artifacts (marking territorial or social boundaries- possibly the foundation for regionalized, multiethnic Europe?)
-More emphasis on working bone & antler
-Shift toward greater hunting of heard animals
-Increasing use of personal ornamentation
-Greater quantities of raw materials coming from distant sources, indicative of long distance trade networks.
The Artistic Explosion-
- Between 42-32 KYA, bone ornaments such as beads, pendants, animal teeth were being used.
-Roughly contemporaneously, images of animals, humans, and other symbols were painted on cave walls in Europe.
-By ca. 27 KYA, art was also found in S. African and Australian caves.
-Only after ca. 20 KYA does art become commonplace, w/ some 200 caves in SW Europe & about 10,000 sculpted & engraved objects from Europe to Siberia.
-Even musical instruments have been found (bone flutes)
What is some evidence for the "Culture Explosion" (ca. 50-40 KYA)?
-Cave paintings
-Composite + Special tools
-Musical instrument
-Blade Industry
-Detailed Depictions of animals (cave paintings)
Grotte De Chauvet, France-
-Left middle of Page 4 of Chapter outline.
-PG. 128 Book
What was one of the earliest known human artworks? Where was it found and when does it date to?
A lion-headed anthropomorphic statuette. It was carvedfrom a smallmammothtusk. Found in Stadel Cave, Germany. Dates to 32 KYA.
What did Alexander Marchack claim to be a "time factorial" object? What is a "time factorial object?"
A Engraved bonefromLa Marche, France. A time factorial object is basically a calendar.
(Late Paleolithic Houses of Eurasia)
-Ukraine, ca. 17 KYA
-5 houses
-110,000 sq ft of area
-50 people
(Late Paleolithic Houses of Eurasia)
Dolni Vestonice-
-Czech Republic, ca. 27 KYA
-100-120 people
Paleo Siberia-
-The likely origin of American Indians (Paleosiberians to Paleoindians)
-Earliest occupations date to betwen 38-28 KYA, with strong evidence at ca. 34.9 KYA w/ a mixed Middle Paleolithic & blade technology (archaic + modern)
-Later occupations are found in the Lake Baikal & Mal'ta regions dating to 22 KYA, some with semisubterranean houses similar to those in Dolni Vestonice
- Afontova gora occupations were found over a larger area & to the north, dating to 21-20 KYA
-D'uktai culture may date to as early as 30 KYA, but most American archaeologists accept 16-13 KYA; D'uktai stone tools resemble some of the earliest American stone tools (Clovis... etc.)
Artifacts of the D'uktai tradition-
-Wedge-shaped core; characteristic found on both sides of the Bering Strait.