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30 Cards in this Set

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Early Egypt:
-By 5000 B.c., simple farmers of grains and cattle settled odwn along the Nile River valley as far south as modern-day Sudan.
-This event marked the begginning of the Pre-Dynastic Period (ca.5000-3100B.C.)
-Before 3100B.C., disorganized kingdoms & villages were unified by a single ruler into a state.
-Neither population growth nor pressure seem to have played a role in the formation of the Egyptian state.
-Egyptian civilizations lasted some 2000 years before weakness & invasions brought Nubians, Assyrians, Persians, Alexander the Great, Greeks & Romans onto the scene (between ca. 730-30 B.C.).
The spread of the Upper Egyptian proto-kingdom through the Nile Valley, ca. 3300 B.C.
-King Scorpion defeats king of Nagada, influences invention of writing & monumental architecture, ca. 3200 B.C. (tomb found at Abydos).
-King Narmer (Menes), the Catfish King, unifies Egypt ca. 3150 B.C.
Hierakonpolis & King Narmer the Unifier:
-By 3600-3500 B.C., Nagada & Hierakonpolis had emerged as large capital cities of riverine chiefdoms with Hierakonpolis having as many as 10,500 people.
-Signs of social differentiation had emerged in Egyptian pottery with Plum Red Pottery found in tombs of prominent citizens & wealthy merchants.
-Some tombs suggesting "royalty" had images of rulers smiting their enemies & sitting under an awning (later symbols of Egyptian royalty).
-Large public buildings, temples & tombs were built.
-The Narmer Palette, found at Hierakonpolis, commemorates King Narmer's victory over a norther ruler ca. 3100 B.C., and Narmer is shown wearing the crowns of Upper & Lower Egypt (1st time in Egyptian symbolism) indicating unification of the two regions.
Egyptian Hieroglyphics:
-Writing becomes fully developed in Egypt around 3100 B.C. (roughly same time as unification).
-Hieroglyph= "sacred carving" ("the writing of the gods")
-Combines a system of pictographic (images) and phonetic (sounds) symbols.
-Writing was developed in Mesopotamia a few hundred years earlier, but Egyptian hieroglyphics were better adapted to writing on paper (papyrus) while Sumerian cuneiform was better suited for writing on clay tablets.
-Like Hebrew, ancient Egyptian omitted vowel sounds.
-Direction of reading was usually indicated by the direction the text was facing(starting from that point, top figures preceeded those on bottom, read left or right, or arranged symmetrically (mirror image) around a door or other object.
Rosetta Stone-
Discovered by Napoleon's troops in the Nile delta near Rashid [Rosetta] in 1799.
The Rosetta Stone: Key to Egyptian Hieroglyphics:
-Jean Francois Champollion working from a copy of the Rosetta Stone came to the discovery in 1822 (after 14 years of work!!!), based on Thomas Young's finding that hieroglyphs had sound values, that names (in Greek) might be written phonetically (in hieroglyphics) on the Rosetta Stone.
-Ptolmys (= Ptolemy)
-Kleopatra (= Cleopatra)
-Alksentrs (= Alexander [the Great])
Egyptian writing applied to everyday life?
-Hieroglyphs to cursive hand to shorthand.
Egyptian Chronology: General Periods of Egyptian Culture:
-Archaic Period (2920-2575 B.C.)(Solidification of Empire).
-Old Kingdom (2575-2180 B.C.)(Pyrimid Building; Capital at Memphis near Cairo).
-First Intermediate Period (2180-2134 B.C.)(Drought & Political Instability)
-Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 B.C.)(Capital at Thebes; Rulers Less Despotic; the Classic Period of Egyptian Civilization).
-Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 B.C.)(Political Instability & Foreign Invaders: The Hyksos)
-New Kingdom (1530-1070 B.C.)(Tombs in Valley of the Kings; King Tutankhamun; Capital at Thebes)
-Late Period (1070-332 B.C.)(Period of Foreign Influence: Nubians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans).
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
The god ofrebirth or reincarnation & fertility, brother & husband to Isis, fatherof Horus, brothre of Seth.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
Themother goddess, wife of Osiris,mother of Horus.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
Theson of Osiris & Isis, the avenging son, god of order & justice.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
The god of evil, brother of Osiris & Isis.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
The creator god, maker of humankind from clay or pottery.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
The goddess of justice, rightness.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
God of fertility.
(The Egyptian Pantheon [Gods & Goddesses])
Devourer of souls at the judgment.
(The Sun Gods)
The sun god or supreme god, rulers claimed descent from him.
(The Sun Gods)
Ruler of the gods, father of the pharaohs, a combination of Amun and Ra.
(The Sun Gods)
The sun disk, worship initiated by Akhenaten the heretic king & revoked by Tutankhamun (nee Tutankhaten).
Themes from Egyptian Mythology That Reappear in Christianity:
-The Creation of the Universe/ World.
-The Creation of Man from Clay.
-The Holy Family (incl. Madonna & Child).
-The Trinity.
-The Immaculate Conception.
-The Resurrection.
-The Judgment.
-[ca.3200 B.C.]
-Preceded pyramids & were used for lesser personages.
-mastaba = "bench" in Arabic.
The First Pyramid?
The Step Pyramid of Djoser [Zoser], ca. 2668-2649 B.C.
Early Attempt at Building Pyramids-
The Bent Pyramid at Dashur [ca. 2680-2565 B.C.]
Where are the Great Pyramids? What are the names of the Pyramids?
-Menkaure Pyramid, Chephren Pyramid (Pyramid of Khafre), and Great Pyramid (of Khufu).
Pyramid of Khafre/Chepren-
Khafre was the son of Khufu who supposedly built the Great Pyramid in the 4th Dynasty. Ruled from 2520-2494 B.C. and is responsible for the second largest pyramid complex at Giza, which includes the Sphinx, a Mortuary Temple, and a Valley Temple.
What is the smallest Pyramid at Giza?
Pyramid of Menkaure. (2540 B.C.)
Who discovered King Tut's Tomb?
Howard Carter in 1922.
-Preservationo of a body. Can be preserved wet, frozen or dried.
-Egyptians used natron to dry the body.
-Natron is a natural substance foundin abundance along theNile river. It is made up of four salts.
Egyptian Six important aspects that made up a human being:
The physical body, shadow, name, ka (spirit), ba (personality) & the akh (immortality).
The African Kingdoms: Egyptian Influence & Independent Development:
-Nubia (Kush) (1500/806 B.C.-A.D. 320)
-Meroe (600 B.c. -A.D. 350)
-Aksum (Axum) (A.D. 100-650)
-Jenne-Jeno (200 B.C. - A.D. 800+)
-Ghana (A.D. 700-1100)
-Great Zimbabwe (A.D. 950-1450)
-Mali (A.D. 1230-1460)
-Songhay (A.D.1340-1550)