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42 Cards in this Set

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What is the basic function of archaeologists?
Archaeologists study the remains of ancient human societies and cultures.
What is the basic function of ...(archaeological) botanists?
(Archaeological) botanists study ancient pollen found in soil and rocks.
What is the basic function of ...(archaeological) chemists?
(Archaeological)chemists determine the age of ancient objects.
What is the basic function of ...(archaeological) geologists?
(Archaeological)geologists describe and explain the changes in the earth's suface that occur over time.
What is the basic function of ... paleoanthropologists?
Paleoanthropolists study the biological and cultural development of humans.
What is the basic function of ...(archaeological) linguists?
(Archaeological) linguists study and compare ancient languages looking for similarities among them.
What are the 6 basic archaeological specialties?
1. archaeology
2. botanists
3. chemists
4. geologists
5. linguists
6. paleoanthropolgy
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology ... study the remains of buildings, artwork, tools, and pottery?
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology ... remove fossilized pollen with acid or by adding a liquid that causes the pollen to float on the top of the surface?
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology ... might discover a fossil of a sea creature in an area that is all land and conclude that the land was once water?
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology ... compare ancient languages to determine whether the speakers lived in the same geographic area?
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology ... study the size and shape of skeletal remains such as, teeth and bones?
Why do botonist study the plants from which pollen came?
They use this information to understand the vegetation of a particular area that existed up to 60,000 years ago.
Name the 4 basic steps that archaeologistsgoes through in their work.
1. Determine where an ancient society is likely to be baried;
2. Dig through the eaach and uncover, or excate, the remains;
3. Accurately record where the objects were found; and,
4. Carefully examine the objects to learn about the society.
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology study the materials from rocks?
Why do geologists want to understand the material of a rock?
Geologists want to discover how ancient people got the stone to make their tools.
What are 3 reasons linguists compare ancient languages?
Linguist study ancient languages to:
1. determine whether the groups lived in the same geographical area;
2. Track the movement of different societies; and,
Identify important information about the ancient cultures.
Which of the basic 6 specialties in archaeology study the biological and cultural development of humans?
Why do paleoanthropologists focus on the size and shape of skeletal remains such as, teeth, skulls, and other bones?
Paleoanthropologists study teeth, skulls and other bones to reveal information on the size, sex, and age of a hominid when he or she died.
Name 5 aspects an anthropologist tries to understand about people's lives.
1. Culture
2. Community
3. Communication
4. Religion
5. Traditions
What is a culture?
Culture is how people live, and the ways of living that they have in common.
What is a community?
Community is where people live, and the social structure and buildings.
What is communication?
Communication is how people exchange ideas, language, pictures, and gestures.
What is religion?
Religion is what people value and/or worship.
What is a tradition?
Traditions are the actions and beliefs handed down from the past.
What does excavate mean?
To dig to examine a site.
What are the 4 basic steps to excavating an archaeological site?
1. Map out the area
2. form area into squares or a grid pattern
3. labels coordinates.
4. measure, dig, sift and brush away dirt to reveal the relics
Name 2 large tools that archaeologists use during an excavation.
shovels and picks
Name 3 smaller tools that an archaeologists use during an excavation.
trowel, ice picks and a firm brush
Why would an archaeologist use a wire mesh sieve during an excavation?
To sift through dirt to locate tiny objects which may otherwise be overlooked.
Why would an archaeologist make a plaster cast of bones or fossils?
Plaster casts are made of bones and fossils that are too difficult to move.
Only large bones and fossils are labelled and recorded.
True or false? Why?
False. All relics, no matter the size of them, are labelled and recorded.
What is stratigraphy?
Stratigraphy is a method used to determine the age of artifacts by keeping a record of the layers of soil in which they were found.
Why is stratigraphy important?
It's a process that helps to interpret archaeologists findings and uncover clues about different periods in history.
What is a strata?
A distinct change in a layer of soil and rock.
What is an artifact?
An artifact is an object that has been made or modified by humans.
What are 3 inferences an archaeologist may make about an artifact such as, an arrowhead made of flint in an area where flint is not naturally found?
They can infer:
1. the flint was found while the people traveled;
2. people traded for it;
3. people were attached by people from an area where flint is naturally found.
What are two methods used to determine the age of a fossil?
1. radioactive-carbon dating or radioactive decay
2. layer-dating or examining the layer of earth the fossil was found
Why are rocks important in layer-dating a fossil?
Geologists know that younger rocks are layered on top of older rocks.
What is radioactive carbon dating?
Dating artifacts, bones and teeth by chemically determining the amount of radio-active carbon decay there is in them.
What is the maximum number of years that an artifact be dated using radioactive carbon dating?
50,000 years
Why is radioactive carbon dating only effective for artifacts that are less than 50,000 years old?
There is no radioactive carbon left in an artifact after it is 50,000 years old.