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44 Cards in this Set

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What is it?
When did it begin?
Systematic interest in using physical evidence to reconstruct and interpret the past. It is the scientific study of the human past
Began in Italy during the Renaissance with the rediscovery of Classical Antiquity (ca. 1300-1600 A.D.).
Who is James Usher?
1650 AD: He was an archbishop that was interested in chronology. Believed earth began in 4003 BC, 2nd month, 11 days, 6hrs. Later found out 4004 BC, 10th month, 23 days, 9hrs.
Who is James Hutton?
1785 AD: He is interested in how rocks form. Stated that the laws of nature have remained constant throughout time. Discovered bands (sedimentary layers, must have layed out horizontally through time).
Who is Jacques Boucher de Perthes?
1837 AD: Found forms of exotic extinct animals. Wanted to put them in order. Found with the bones human made artifacts. Published articles but not widely accepted.
Who is Charles Darwin?
1859: Developed the theory of Evolution/ Natural Selection/Descent through Modification.
Who is Thomas Henry Huxley?
1857: He was the first person to apply humans to evolution.Wrote Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature in 1863. Origins of humans had to be in Africa or Asia. Said monkeys and humans have a common ancestor (missing link).
1925 -- Raymond Dart
First fossil find at Taung in South Africa. Named it Australopithicus africanus. Juvenile about 10 years old.
Australopithicus africanus -- characteristics
Bipedal - foramen magnum
Name means S. African ape - not quite human
More lightweight/gracile than ape
Came w/ cast of brain (Calcium carbonate filled skull & calcified)
Adults: projecting skulls,smooth round top, 400cc, 3.5ft tall
foramen magnum
large hole in skull
if at bottom creature is bipedal
if at back creature is four legged
Brain capacity of:
Apes: 350 cc
Humans: 1250 cc
laws of burial
Characteriscs of humans:
Hands with opposable thumbs
large brains
Pleiocene Epoc
5 mya
tool kit of our hominid ancestor Australopithecus africanus. Dart believed that Australopithecus built tools out of bone (osteo), teeth (donto) and horn (keratic)
Difference between a hominid and a hominin?
hominid: all fossil forms
hominin: fossils on the direct line of human evolution
Australopithicus robustus
found in same caves as other A. africanus
mixed in with remains of leopard and hyena meals
Who is Charles Brain?
Investigated how caves were formed
Studied animal bones
Found that leopard fangs matched holes in skulls
Bones could have fallen out from trees of leopard lairs
1959 -- Olduvai Gorge
Louis and Mary Leakey
Found Zinjanthropus boisei now A. boisei or Paranthropus boisei
500 cc
Found with stone tools
Sagittal crest & robust skeleton...
1960s -- Olduvai Gorge
Leakeys find Homo habilis
680 cc-700cc
2 mya
1972 - Koobi Fora
Richard Leakey uncovers second more complete Homo habilis skull
1.8 mya
Homo rudolfensis
smaller, possible different sex
1977 -- Laetoli, Tanzania
Mary Leakey discovers footprints of an upright bipedal hominid
Date between 3.4 and 3.6 mya
About 3ft tall
1970s -- Hadar/Afar
found skeleton
Australopithicus afarensis aka Lucy
dated to 3.4 mya
3ft, 80lbs
projecting muzzle, eyebrow ridges, small brain (350cc)
still adapted to grasping trees
1999 -- Koobi Fora
Maeve Leakey and her team discover the remains of Kenyanthropus platyops
flat faced
3.5 mya
phylogenetic diagram
evolutionary diagram
What were two groups of stone tools that were studied?
Olduwan and Acheulean
Torralba/Ambrona, Spain
Deposits of stone artifacts and bones of extinct elephants, horses, deer
Probably Pleistocene era
Tools made of stone, bone, ivory, tusk, and wood
Ashes found - possible cooking
Atapuerca, Spain
Sima de los Huesos
Large crevice H. heidelbergensis found
largest set of human remains ever recovered from the (lower)paleolithic period
32 individuals
Gran Dolina, Spain
Layer 6 about 900 kya
About 25 animals species: horse, deer, bison,rhinoceros,wild cat,hyena,wolf
Also human fossil fragments - a form of human erectus
Terra Amata, France
remains of carefully constructed huts
Schoningen, Germany
Wooden spears were found - big game hunters
350 - 400 cc
1856 - Germany
Homo neanderthalensis
Marcellin Boule decided in 1920 @ La Chapelle that they were a separate species not human
Neander Valley
Radiocarbon/C14 dating can only date back how far?
40 kya
Neanderthals are associated with what stone tool industry?
Homo erectus and heidelbergensis are associated with what tool industry?
Shanidar, Iraq
150 - 50 kya
One Neanderthal was buried with flowers
Another had only one arm - cared for by others
Human skull found
100 kya
Neanderthals + humans coexisted
DNA differs
Regional Continuity
H. erectus spread out than later evolved through time
Replacement Theory
"Out of Africa Theory" - Neanderthals and other forms eventually died out, humans replaced them
What did Alexander Marshak discover?
Dots/marks on bone
came in clusters, all different
possible lunar calendar
abri blanchard
Dolni Vestonice
26 - 27 kya
large huts
animal bones surround them
woman found in hut - face partly paralyzed, sculptures showed the same
3 skeletons: guy, girl, guy/no hands
22 kya
adult male near moscow
beads made out of marine shell
buried on his back
similar stuff in N. Italy - Also found twin dwarfs
Venus of Willendorf
6 in. high
exaggerated hips,breasts,body, etc