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41 Cards in this Set

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Time/Space/Form
Large swaths of time are great asset, must know when and where before other w's
relative dating
establishing a sites chronological order; seriation, stratigraphy
absolute dating
dating a site in calender years; radio-carbon, dendro, trapped charge
Jamestown Island Tree Study
Dennis created a master ring sequence for Tidewater area. Reconstructed climate, and found droughts during Jamestown settlement and Roanoake.
Dendrochronology
count the rings around a tree (seasonal growth) to find out how old it is. need a master sequence.
Radiocarbon dating
The dating of materials by the unstable atoms breaking down into more stable atoms by releasing radioactivity. Libby. Count emissions to find out age.
Calibration
The curve is not linear, so their is no direct relationship. Must calibrate because of the inconsistency of N14 and C14 in atmosphere over time.
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Count number of C14 in a material, allows dating of very small objects. High kinetic energy separates parts.
Trapped charge dating
electrons become trapped in atomic imperfections. accumulate over time. heat or light will reset the trapped ions.
OSL
Dates to the last time something was buried, no sunlight
Dismal Swamp OSL
Africans; pvc pipe into ground to protect sample from light. tests middle of sample thats undistrurbed`
Law of Superposition
Each layer is deposited above another was deposited after
Typological Classification
dividing materials up by there attributes such as style, temporal, technological
Seriation
Ordering or sequence of artifacts based on their formal, tech, or stylistic attributes
Diagnostic Artifact
an item that is indicative a particular place or time or cultural group
Period
defined by gross changes in arch. remains. Eastern US--> PaleoIndian, Woodland, Archaic
phase
block of time def'd by artifacts shared across area
Middle Range Research
Research that bridges gap between humans and material remains
Systemic Context
Material in its original, dynmaic setting
Archaeological Context
Dead, lifeless materials we find now
Taphonomy
How living organisms become part of a fossil record
Experimental Arch
Recreation of material remains to discover how they were used...example is corn, nuts front yard
Ethnoarchaeology
study of a contemporary community with a focus on how the material remains were used...
Uniformitarism
Geological processes now operating to modify earth were the same in the past
Analogy
If two things agree in one respect, they will probably in others too
Binford vs. Bordes
Arguing over neanderthal tools, Bordes claimed they were from diff groups, Binford said they were different for different uses during the year
Defs of Historical Arch
study of material remains from remote and ancient past in relation to documentary history and stratigraphy
Additional Sources of evidence
Historical documents, maps, portraits, pictures
Middle Range Theory
how an arch connects data to broad high level theories
Ethnohistorical research vs. ethnographic analogy
takes place of later in historical arch
Diff in historical sites
in general no, but different materials require new treatment, global trade leads to artifacts not specific to a region, more trash
what can it historical contribute
understanding of daily events, privacy, relationships of groups who in documents didnt associate, architecture of buildings without plans, foodways
revisionist histories
retelling of history from point of view of disenfranchised
public arch
involvement of descendant communities
artifacts as markers of ethnicity
Stine's interpreation of blue beads as African-American symbols,
multivocality
interpreting artifacts from multiple perspectives
chesapeake pipes and star motif
artifacts found in area
dating pipe stems
Pipe lengths and bore diameter over time
stars on pipes as symbols
they are icons, representing objects in real world
multiple meanings of stars
navigation, predict disease, timing of year
postprocessual example of stars
subjunctive perspectives, non-quantitative, social context use, divisions in society