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72 Cards in this Set

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Q - According to Erikson, the psychosocial conflict experienced by adolescents is
A – ego identity vs role confusion.

Erikson's theory of development describes the "Eight Stages of Man," or the psychosocial crises that are associated with development throughout the life span. According to this theory, the adolescent faces the crisis of ego identity vs. role confusion.
Q - According to Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, successful resolution of the stage integrity versus despair focuses on
A – wisdom.

Erikson's integrity versus despair stage marks the final stage of development. This stage culminates in the development of wisdom.
Q - Kohlberg's theory of moral development suggests all of the following except;
A – necessity of progressing through the stages as opposed to remaining fixed at an earlier stage.

Kohlberg's theory of moral development holds that our beliefs about what is right and what is wrong progress through a predictable sequence that is a function of our cognitive development. As we progress, our sense of what is moral moves from being based first on the consequences of our actions, then on external standards of authority, and finally on universal standards of conscience.

In contrast to choice D [necessity of progressing through the stages as opposed to remaining fixed at an early stage of development], many individuals never progress to the final stage of development and remain fixed at an earlier stage.
Q - According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a child in the Conventional Stage would be most concerned with:
A - societal rules and social order.

Preconventional - Concerns with the consequences of behavior (rewards and punishments) and hedonistic desires

Conventional - development is guided by the desire to maintain existing social laws, rules, and norms.

Post-conventional -individuals define morality in terms of self-chosen principles.
Q - The difference between preoperational and concrete operational thought is that
A – the concrete operational child has mastered conservation of the object while the preoperational child as not.

Piaget divided cognitive development into four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

In the preoperational stage, the child is unable to conserve, or recognize that a change in the appearance of an object does not mean that the object's fundamental properties have changed. For example, a preoperational child would think that pouring water from a short, fat glass to a tall, thin one would result in an increase in the amount of water. Conservation develops in a predictable, sequential manner throughout the concrete operational phase.
Q - A three-year old child sees a squirrel "fly" from one tree to another and classifies it as a bird. After getting a closer look at the squirrel, he sees that it can only "fly" short distances and that it has fur on it instead of feathers. He then reclassifies it as a "flying animal other than a bird." According to Piaget, the child has engaged in what two processes, respectively?
A – assimilation; accommodation.

Assimilation involves incorporating new information from the environment into existing cognitive schemas. Initially, the child assimilated the flying squirrel into his existing way of classifying flying animals.

Accommodation, by contrast, involves modifying a cognitive schema to be consistent with new environmental information. After getting a closer look at the squirrel, the child accommodated by modifying his existing way of classifying flying animals.
Q - According to Piaget, conservation develops
A – throughout the concrete operational stage of development.

Conservation, or the ability to recognize that a change in the appearance of an object does not necessarily indicate a change in the object's fundamental properties, develops systematically through the concrete operational stage of cognitive development (ages 7-12 years).
Q - Children in the conventional stage of moral development would most likely
A – consider a rule violation as wrong, especially if it has damaging consequences for others. This is a hard question since it combines two theories —Kohlberg's and Piaget's — and since Kohlberg did not set strict age limits for his stages of moral development. However, answer "B" is best because the conventional stage of moral development is most characteristic of middle childhood, and the consequences of an act are important for determining the "rightness" or "wrongness" of an act during this stage. Also, according to Piaget, during middle childhood, children believe that rules are unalterable and that rule violations are wrong, regardless of the violator's intentions.
Q - A child who has reached an operational level of reasoning
A – will be realistic in his or her thinking.

This is a question about Piaget's theory of cognitive development. You might remember that operational thought is the third stage of the developmental process, begins around 7 or 8 years of age (more or less), and defines a more or less conventional way of thinking and perceiving the world.

Hypothetical deductive reasoning (choice C), which is the ability to test alternative explanations does not develop until the formal operational stage (age 12+).
Q - Which of the following occurs during Piaget's concrete operational stage?
A - reversibility and decentration develop, leading to the development of conservation tasks in a predictable, sequential order.

To understand this question, it's first necessary to know the meaning of the terms it contains.

Conservation refers to the ability to understand that a change in the appearance of an object does not necessarily mean that the object's fundamental properties have changed. Conservation tasks refer to conservation for specific object properties such as number, length, liquid, volume, etc.

Reversibility is the ability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction.

Decentration is the opposite of centration, which is the tendency to focus on one detail of a situation to the neglect of other important features.

Reversibility and decentration abilities are mastered in Piaget's concrete operational stage, which occurs between the ages of 7 and 11 years. These abilities underlie the development of conservation tasks; for example, conservation of liquid requires reversibility -- to understand that the amount of liquid does not change when poured into a new container, the child must imagine the liquid being poured back into its original container.

Conservation tasks develop in the same sequential order for almost all children (93% in one study) throughout the concrete operational stage.

Piaget referred to the sequential development of abilities within a stage as "horizontal decalage."
Q - A child looks for her parents and cries when they leave the room. According to Piaget,
A - this child has achieved object permanence.

A key intellectual achievement of the sensorimotor stage is object permanence, or the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. A child who searches for his parents when they leave the room is displaying signs of object permanence.
Q - A 15 year-old girl gets her hair cut and feels that the hairdresser trimmed her bangs much too short. She tells her mother that she doesn't want to return to school until her hair grows out because she is sure everyone will make fun of her until then. This is an example of
A – imaginary audience.

According to Elkind, one manifestation of adolescent egocentrism is the belief that one is always "on stage." This is referred to as the imaginary audience.
Q - In terms of self-image, popularity, and school performance, early physical maturity has been found to have which of the following effects for adolescents?
A – positive for males but negative for females.

The effects of the timing of physical maturation are different for males and females. Boys seem to benefit from early maturation (early maturers are more popular and do better in school), while early-maturing girls experience a number of negative outcome (e.g., shyness, low self-esteem).
Q - The most valid prognostic sign for a major disorder of adolescence would be
A - family history of psychopathology.

Research supports the notion that children of parents who suffer from psychopathology are at far greater risk to develop their own psychopathology. Undoubtedly, this has to do with both genetic and environmental factors.
Q - A psychologist conducts a study to investigate the effects of aging on secondary memory. Based on your familiarity with the literature, you predict that she will find that
A - elderly subjects do worse on secondary memory tasks than younger subjects because they use less efficient encoding strategies.

Unfortunately, the research has shown that we can all "look forward" to memory problems in old age. These problems are most apparent in secondary (recent long-term) memory and working memory and appear to be due to less spontaneous use of efficient encoding strategies. The good news is that the studies also show that you can teach old dogs new tricks (in this case, encoding strategies)!
Patterson focused on the family factors that contribute to aggressiveness in children, and found that
the development of aggression was due largely to imitation of the parent's aggressive behaviors and the parent's reinforcement of the child's aggressiveness.
Q - Babies who cry in the presence of their mother and become more distressed when she leaves the room, would be considered to have which attachment style?
A – resistant.

Babies with a "resistant" pattern of attachment are anxious when their mother is present, become more distressed when she leaves, and are ambivalent when she returns. These babies may also resist their mother's attempts to make physical contact.

Mothers of resistant babies are typically inconsistent in their responses to their child.
Q - A child who is classified as "avoidant" in attachment is left alone with a stranger. When the parents return to pick up the child, the child will most likely
A - attempt to keep some physical distance between self and parents.

This question refers to Ainsworth's "strange situation" research, in which she identified three patterns of attachment based on how children respond to their caretakers in the situation described by the question.

Children with the avoidant pattern of attachment react to the caretaker in much the same way they react to the stranger. They are typically slow to greet the caretaker and though they don't resist being picked up, they often fail to cling.
Q - A six-month old baby has begun to babble. Her earliest babbling can be expected to include
A – phonemes from all languages.

Early babbling, repetition of simple consonant and vowel sounds, contains phonemes from all languages.

Between the ages of 9-14 months, babies begin using phonemes only from their native language.
Q - Parents who are indifferent to or rejecting of their children are most likely to have children who are
A – noncompliant and demanding.

This question indirectly refers to the four styles of parenting identified by Diane Baumrind and others. One of these styles is uninvolved parenting. Uninvolved parents are undemanding and indifferent to or rejecting of their children. Their children are often noncompliant and demanding, and they often interfere with their parents' behavior.

The other parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive.
Q - The research on bilingual and English-only education has shown that compared to immigrant children who are immersed in English-only education, those who receive bilingual education become:
A - at least as proficient in English.

Research investigating outcomes of quality bilingual education programs shows that immigrant children in these programs learn English and subject matter as well as or better than immigrants in English-only programs.
Q - According to Bowlby, our cognitive representations of ourselves and others are called
A – internal working models.

Bowlby used the term "internal working models" to describe the cognitive representations that children develop of themselves and others. He believed that these models are formed during early childhood, but continue to develop over time.
Q - A school psychologist is interested in studying the interrelationships between a child's home and school environments. From the perspective of Brofenbrenner's ecological model, the psychologist is interested in the
A – mesosystem.

As defined by Bronfenbrenner, the mesosystem refers to the interconnections between different aspects of the microsystem -- the connection between the family and the school.
Q - According to Chomsky, language is
A - largely innate. Chomsky holds a nativist position towards language development. Consequently, he believes that language acquisition is largely innate.
Q - Open expressions of conflict and hostility between a husband and wife are
A – more likely to be associated with overt behavioral problems in boys than in girls.

Research suggests that the effects of open parental conflict are more adverse for boys than for girls. Specifically, boys with conflictual parents are more likely to display aggressive or impulsive acting-out behaviors.

A similar finding has been obtained in research investigating the effects of divorce on children. However, in both cases, some have suggested that girls are affected just as much as boys, but in less obvious ways (e.g., anxiety, withdrawal), and girls may not manifest the problems until several years later, which is known as the "sleeper effect".
Q - A behavior that does not develop unless certain environmental events are present during a limited period of time illustrates the notion of
A – critical periods.

A critical period is a limited time period during which an organism is biologically prepared to acquire certain behaviors but requires the support of an appropriately stimulating environment.

a sensitive period is an optimal time for a particular developmental capacity to emerge; however, the capacity can develop at an earlier or later time
Q - In comparing the children from intact families to children from divorced families, the National Survey of Children has found that as they reach early adulthood,
A – children from divorced families are more likely to demonstrate academic and emotional problems. Although the evidence is not overwhelming, one of the general conclusions of the National Survey of Children is that divorce can produce negative consequences by the time the child reaches early adulthood.
Q - Research has generally found that divorce has the most negative effects on
A - boys initially, whereas, girls manifest problems later on. Research has generally found that boys tend to suffer more severe short-term consequences of divorce which often manifests as noncompliance, demandingness, and hostility. However, recent research has shown that girls also suffer negative consequences immediately after divorce, although these are usually manifested as internalizing behaviors such as withdrawal and self-criticism. Girls also tend to manifest more negative effects over time, which is sometimes referred to as the "sleeper effect".

children who exhibit serious adjustment problems after their parents' divorce are often those who already had difficulties before the divorce.
Q - The first words infants express are usually
A – nouns.

Children first express names of objects of significance to them, like Da-Da, Ba-Ba (bottle), Ma-Ma, etc. So nouns is the best answers.
Q - Freud's latency stage corresponds with which of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
A – industry vs inferiority.

Erikson's industry vs. inferiority stage occurs approximately between the ages of 6-11. Freud s latency stage occurs at about the same time.
Q - According to Carol Gilligan adolescent females are more likely to develop healthy identity by
A – staying connected to self and others.

According to Gilligan, during adolescence, females are at a high risk of abandoning themselves and others in order to conform to cultural expectations of femininity. Gilligan refers to this as a "relational crisis". In order to develop a healthy identity, adolescent girls should maintain a connection to themselves and others.
Q - The goodness-of-fit model developed by Thomas and Chess proposes that healthy development requires a match between
A – temperament and environment.

Knowing that Thomas and Chess are most associated with research on temperament would have helped you choose the right answer to this question.
Q - During the first few days following birth, smiling by an infant is associated with
A – REM sleep.

During the first few days following birth, smiling by an infant is associated with REM sleep. By the second week, the infant will begin to smile while awake.
Q - Which of the following is least developed in an infant?
A - cerebral cortex.

The cortex is not well-developed at birth, when most behaviors are controlled by lower brain centers. The cortex continues to develop throughout infancy and childhood.
Q - According to Margaret Mahler, a key developmental task of infancy is separation/individuation. The successful outcome of this task is
A – permanent and distinct internal representations of self and others.

According to Mahler, a key aspect of social development is the progression from symbiotic fusion with the mother to the development of autonomy and the ability to distinguish self from other people. This process is referred to as separation/individuation.
Q - Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects brain development because it results in
A - an abnormally low number of brain neurons.

Studies have suggested that children of mothers who suffer from malnutrition, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy, often have an abnormally low number of brain cells, as well as a low brain weight.
Q - According to Marcia's identity statuses, identity foreclosure is characterized by the adolescent

(Don't Forget Marcia's Adolescence)
A – who has made a strong commitment to an identity that was not the outcome of an identity crisis, but was suggested by another person.

identity moratorium - having an identity crisis and actively exploring different options and beliefs.

identity diffusion - has not undergone an identity crisis and is not committed to an identity.

identity achievement - has resolved his or her identity crisis and is committed to a particular identity.
Q - Among Caucasian adolescents, maternal employment leads to the most negative impact on academic performance for which of the following groups.
A - middle and upper-middle class boys.

Research suggests that middle and upper-middle class boys are most negatively impacted by maternal employment with respect to academic performance.
Q - Which of the following aspects of memory shows the most decline with age?
A – secondary.

One of the most consistent findings of the research is that recent long-term (secondary) memory is most adversely affected by normal aging.
Q - Research on the effect of aging on different memory systems has found that
A – explicit memory declines more than implicit memory.

Research has found that declines in explicit memory processes are more pronounced in the elderly. Implicit memory abilities are similar for older and younger adults.
Q - On which of the following tests would differences in scores between an elderly group of individuals and a younger group likely be greatest?
A - a free recall test.

Many laboratory investigations of differences in memory and learning between older and younger adults have involved presenting a set of words, letters, and nonsense syllables to a group of elderly and younger adults. Then, the memory of individuals in each group is tested. In such experiments, older individuals typically perform much worse than younger adults when free recall of the items is required. However, when subjects are asked only to recognize the items, or when hints (i.e., cues) are given to aid recall, differences in learning between the groups decline dramatically.

the information subtest of the WAIS-III, as compared to scores on other WAIS-III subtests, scores on the information and vocabulary subtests show the least decline over time. On these tests, differences between an older and a younger group of individuals are not likely to be that marked.
Q – Anxiety about death is greatest among individuals aged
A – 40 – 50.

For most people, anxiety about death is strongest during the midlife years.

Research suggests that the key feature of the mid-life transition (age 40-45) is an increasing awareness of one's own mortality. This results in a number of psychological changes, including a shift of perspective from "time since birth" to "time left to live." However, it is not likely to result in profound personality change or decreased life satisfaction; in fact, middle-aged and older people are more likely than younger individuals to report satisfaction with their work and home life.
Q - Montessori teaching methods emphasize:
A – hands-on learning.

Montessori classrooms encourages a hands-on approach to learning in which students are free to explore the toys and materials within a "prepared environment". The teacher observes them, but assists only when they truly need help. There is very little didactic group training. This approach is based on the theory that children are naturally motivated to learn, thus, external reinforcement is not necessary.
Q - Which of the following best describes the infant Moro reflex?
A – throwing arms outward as if grabbing for support, when the infant’s head is permitted to drop slightly while being held.

Neonatal reflexes are "built-in" motor responses to stimulation in newborn infants. The Moro reflex, also known as the embracing reflex, represents the infant's tendency to attempt to embrace and cling to the caretaker when the infant loses support.

Babinski reflex - the extension of the big toe and spreading of smaller toes when the infant is tickled,

palmar grasp reflex - the spontaneous grasp of a finger that is placed in the infant's hand,

the sucking reflex -the rhythmic sucking of a finger placed into the infant's mouth.
Q - Phenotype refers to
A – observable and measurable characteristics.

The term phenotype refers to characteristics that are observable and measureable and that often reflect a combination of genetic and environmental influences
Exposure to cocaine during prenatal development
often leads to oversensitivity, rather than undersensitivity, to sensory stimulation.

The other responses – including crawl, stand and walk early - are characteristic of many of these infants who are exposed to cocaine during early development.
Q - Studying children's psychopathology over time is difficult because
A - symptoms change depending on the child's stage of development.

As children develop over time, their symptoms change.
Q - Research suggests that the most significant contributors to reading disabilities originating in childhood are
A – phonological processing difficulties.

Visual and auditory deficiencies have been found to have a relatively small impact on reading disability. Syntactic knowledge deficits are related to reading disabilities but primarily for adult readers. On the other hand, many studies have confirmed that phonological processing deficiencies are apparent in most children with reading problems.
Q - When retarded and non-retarded children are compared on cognitive tasks, the typical finding is that
A – the similar structure hypothesis is not supported.

The similar structure theory, based primarily on research of Piaget's theories, posits that everyone passes through the same developmental stages, except that people differ in the rate or time of passage. The second theory, the difference theory, posits that there is also a qualitative difference in the mentation of retarded individuals, that it is more than merely a difference in time of transition through stages. The current research tends to support the difference hypothesis. Even when mental ages are controlled for, the retarded person will perform differently on cognitive tasks.
Q - Research has suggested that low-achieving students perform best if they are placed into classes with
A – other children who have a full range of abilities.

research suggests that low-achieving students do better in heterogeneous classes than in those in which students are grouped by ability. When low-achieving students are placed in homogeneous groups, they tend to get less of the teacher's attention, have a poorer self-image, have less motivation, and tend to not learn as much.
Q - It has been found that special groupings of students by skill
A - is harmful to slow learners, and not particularly helpful for superior students.

Research indicates that special groupings by skill lowers slow learners' self-esteem and fosters a general sense of failure which leads to even worse results. These groupings do not seem to have any particularly beneficial effect on superior students. These findings are relevant to the practice of 'mainstreaming' whenever possible.
Q - Louis Terman is most noted for
A – developing the Stanford-Binet.

Terman translated the French Binet scales into English and developed the Stanford-Binet. He gave the test the name of the university where he was working.

He also worked on a very important longitudinal study of gifted children in 1905
Q - Stranger anxiety is most intense when an infant is
A – 17 to 18 months of age.

Stranger anxiety is first evident when the infant is between 8 and 10 months of age. The intensity of stranger anxiety is at its maximum when the infant is about 18 months of age.
Q - Studies investigating the effect of television on children have demonstrated that
A- young children can tell the difference between advertising and programming.

This is a difficult question because it requires knowledge of research in a particular area and the best answer is not necessarily accessible to common sense -- more than one answer "sounds good." Choice "A" is wrong because educational shows, such as Sesame Street, have been shown to have positive effects. "B" is a little too negative -- though some studies have suggested that extensive TV watching is associated with lower reading skills, it has not been found to be associated with lower social or vocabulary skills. "C" is not true because it has been demonstrated that television can serve as a model for both positive and negative behaviors. This leaves "D", which has been shown to be true. Young children do recognize that there is a difference between programming and commercials; however, rather than recognizing the ulterior motive of advertising, they tend to believe that the commercials are truthful. If an exam question asks about findings from research with which you are not familiar, you can often use common sense to deduce the answer. However, if the research finding is counter-intuitive, or more than one choice seems logical, you may have to just take your best shot and move on.
Q - Teratogenic substances produce the most severe long-term birth defects during which of the following periods?
A - during the third to eighth week of prenatal development.

A teratogenic agent is one that causes physical abnormalities in a developing embryo or fetus. Examples include drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, infectious agents such as the Rubella virus, and ionizing radiation such as an x-ray. The unborn child is most susceptible to the effects of these agents during the embryonic stage which encompasses the third to eighth week of prenatal development.
Q - A psychologist testing an Asian-American child whose primary language is not English repeated the test instructions to the child and had the child repeat the instructions back until the tester was sure she understood. This is
A - acceptable where permitted in the test manual.

When permitted in the test manual, it is acceptable to repeat instructions, and even have the examinee repeat the instructions, until the tester is sure the subject understands. In fact, it's imperative that the subject understand the instructions.
Q - Children's IQ test scores are
A - inversely related to family size and directly related to family income.

Research shows that the smaller the family, the higher the child's IQ score on average. The theory is that with fewer kids more of the parents' time and attention are available, again on average. So in other words, family size is inversely related to IQ score. Also, the higher the family income the higher the child's IQ score. So family income is directly related to IQ score.
Q - Though individual differences and parental preferences vary widely, research generally suggests that most children are developmentally ready and able to begin toilet training beginning by about the age of
A – 24 months.

This question is difficult to answer because, as stated by the question, there are wide individual differences in development in this area. The best answer to this question is based on surveys of parents regarding when children begin and complete toilet training. The results of these studies are not always consistent, but a reading of most of them would make you lean towards choosing 24 months as an answer to this question.
Q - You are hired by a sheltered workshop program to do assessments of moderately to severely retarded adults. To obtain the most reliable and valid estimates of functioning with these clients, you would use the
A – Vineland Social Maturity Inventory.

The Vineland Scales are used to assess levels of adaptive functioning in mentally retarded individuals. They are useful as part of the process of arriving at a diagnosis of Mental Retardation since such a diagnosis requires evidence of deficits in adaptive functioning.
Q - The Vineland test would most likely be used in conjunction with a(n)
A – intelligence test.

The Vineland Social Maturity Scale is designed to measure a person's ability to look after his or her own practical needs, and is used as a measure of adaptive functioning. It is often administered along with an intelligence test to individuals who are suspected of being mentally retarded, since a diagnosis of Mental Retardation requires subaverage intellectual ability and deficits in adaptive functioning.
Q - Visual cliff studies have demonstated that infants between 6 and 18 months of age are able to use the facial expressions of others as guides to their own behavior. This is referred to as:
A – social referencing.

Social referencing is the phenomenon in which an infant uses the facial expressions of others to guide their own behavior.
Q - As defined by Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development
A – refers to the gap between what a child can currently do alone and what he can do with assistance.

Vgotsky believed that teaching is most effective when it takes place within the child's zone of proximal development, which is the gap between what a child can currently do alone and what the child can do with assistance from an adult or more competent peer.
Q - Organic brain disease would be suggested on the WAIS-III if, on the subtests (compared to the subject's mean),
A – Digit Span and Digit Symbol scores were very low.

The subtests of the WAIS-III vary in terms of their sensitivity to brain impairment.

The Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding subtests are among the most sensitive. Scores on these subtests are most likely to be adversely affected by organic dysfunction.
Q - Scores on which of the following WAIS-III subtests would show the least reduction as a result of brain injury?
A – Information.

Scores on the Information (as well as the Vocabulary) subtest of the WAIS-III are usually relatively unaffected by brain impairment. For this reason, the Information and Vocabulary subtests are used as measures of pre-morbid functioning in brain impaired individuals.
Q - A clinician uses scatter analysis of the WAIS-III to diagnose individuals suffering from organic brain damage. The clinician should be aware that this method is likely to yield
A – too many false positives.

Individuals with brain damage tend to show particular patterns of scores on the WAIS-III subtests. However, some non-brain damaged individuals also show the same, or similar, patterns. For instance, brain damaged individuals tend to score significantly higher on the Verbal subtests than on the Performance subtests, but so do anxious and highly educated individuals. Thus, the use of the WAIS-III to diagnose brain damage is likely to result in too many false positives
Q - Which of the following variables yields the highest predictive relationship to a child's IQ score?
A – mother’s WAIS-III Vocabulary score.

The highest correlation to a child's IQ score is the parent's IQ score, which can be estimated from the WAIS-III vocabulary subtest. The other variables predict a child's IQ score in a modest way, but they in turn are predicted by mother's IQ score.
Q - The best premorbid estimates of WAIS-III IQ score are derived from
A – education and occupation.

Another way of phrasing this question would be "which of the following is most correlated with intelligence as measured by the WAIS-III?" As you might predict, the demographic variables most highly correlated with IQ scores are educational and occupational status.
Q - The elderly show the most pronounced declines on which of the WAIS-III subtests
A – digit symbol.

The Classic Aging Pattern shows that elderly people demonstrate sharper declines on performance subtests than verbal subtests on the WAIS-III. In this question, you were asked to make a finer level of discrimination. Among the performance subtests, digit symbol is most affected by age.
Q - Mothers who have high scores on the WAIS-III tend to have children who score high on the WISC-III. This information suggests that
A – parental intelligence is correlated with offspring intelligence. We cannot conclude on the basis of the information given that intelligence is inherited (choice "C"); for instance, it could be that environmental factors account for the similarity between the IQ scores of parents and children. Therefore, on the basis of the information provided, it makes sense to say only that parental intelligence is correlated with offspring intelligence. Even this is not a perfect answer; for instance, we'd want to know if mothers who score low on the WAIS-III tend to have children who score low on the WISC-III. However, it is the only answer that makes any sense at all.
Q - For a group of 50 gifted children, scores on the WISC-III, as compared to the Stanford-Binet, would tend to be
A – lower.

The Stanford-Binet is a more sensitive measure of intelligence than the WISC-III at the outer extremes (high or low) of intelligence. Thus, extremely gifted children will score higher on the Stanford-Binet than on the WISC-III, and profoundly retarded individuals will score lower.
Q - Administering only the verbal subtests of the WISC-III as a means of assessing intelligence would be most appropriate for
A – a child from an affluent suburban community.

The WISC-III consists of verbal and performance subtests. Scores on the verbal subtests are influenced by a variety of factors, including culture, language, and education. The performance subtests reduce the effects of these variables to some degree, and are sometimes administered without the verbal subtests when it is believed that the latter would provide misleadingly low estimates of the person's intelligence. Of the choices listed, the verbal subtest scores of a child from an affluent suburban community are least likely to be adversely affected by extraneous variables.
Q - Zajonc's "confluence model" would support the finding that
A – first born children have greater intellectual ability than later-born children.

Zajonc proposed a confluence model to support a number of studies that suggest that first-born children tend to have greater intellectual ability than later-born children. Zajonc maintains that as the number of children in the family increases, the amount of intellectual stimulation and other important family resources available to each individual child declines.