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57 Cards in this Set

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Q - Addictive behaviors are difficult to treat because:
A – they are self-reinforcing.
Q - A therapist who discusses with clients their needs for power and affiliation is most likely a proponent of:
A - Adlerian therapy. According to the theory upon which reality therapy is based, human beings, like all living organisms, spend their lives acting on the world around them in an attempt to fulfill various needs built into their genetic structure. In humans, these include five essential needs:
1. survival,
2. belonging (i.e., affiliation),
3. power,
4. fun,
5. freedom.

People suffering from psychological disorders are seen as failing to act upon or control the world to satisfy one or more of these needs, and part of the process of reality therapy involves identifying what it is the client wants or needs but cannot satisfy.
The masculine protest came from
Adler's idea that every child experiences feelings of inferiority which supply the motivation to grow, dominate, and be supportive.
Q - The most effective approach for treating African-American families is to:
A - adopt a multisystems approach.
The relationship between anxiety and pain perception:
Individuals who have anxiety disorders tend to report more pain perceptions and tend to have a lower threshold of pain perception.
Automatic thoughts:
arise spontaneously in response to specific situations and reflect the individual's appraisal of a situation rather than the situation itself. However, they're not necessarily associated with cognitive distortions or psychological distress. When automatic thoughts provide an unrealistic interpretation of the situation, they may lead to maladaptive behavioral or emotional responses.
Q - Beck's cognitive triad consists of negative thoughts about:
A - self, the future, and the world. Beck considered these three themes to be the basic ideation of depressed individuals.
Q - For migraine headaches:
A - biofeedback is best when combined with relaxation training. The research on biofeedback is far from consistent but, for migraine headaches, most studies have found biofeedback and relaxation training to be about equally effective. In addition, the optimal treatment seems to be a combination of thermal biofeedback and autogenic (relaxation) training.
Q - A major goal of crisis intervention as originally defined by Kaplan is to:
A – restore the individual to a previous level of functioning. This is pretty straightforward. Crisis intervention is an immediate application of short-term supportive help to aid the person in regaining the previous level of functioning.
Cross Model of Psychological Nigrescence

(Jackson 5)

The term "nigrescence" means the process of becoming Black, and the Cross Model of Psychological Nigrescence posits that African-Americans traverse five stages in growth toward a more authentic African-American identity.

1. Pre-Encounter stage - the person's worldview and values are dominated by Euro-American determinants. In this stage, the person is most likely to believe that integration and assimilation are the solution to racial problems and blame African-Americans themselves for their own problems.
2. Encounter - one or more events increase the person's racial/cultural awareness
3. Immersion-Emersion,
4. Internalization,
5. Internalization-Commitment
culturally encapsulated
- The term "encapsulated" means enclosed in a capsule or other small container. In counseling lingo, the term "culturally encapsulated" is used to refer to therapists or counselors who are insensitive to culturally dissimilar clients due to lack of knowledge about cultures other than their own.
elderly clients
- Generally speaking, a less formal approach has been found to be useful in establishing a therapeutic relationship with elderly clients. Such an approach can help reduce discomfort with and negative transference reactions toward younger therapists.
Q - A psychologist who practices from the etic perspective would probably agree most with which of the following statements?
A - Clients from all cultures can be understood through the application of universally accepted principles. This question is referring to the emic-etic distinction. The emic approach to a problem involves studying from the "inside" of a culture and trying to see it as members of a given culture see it. By contrast, the etic approach involves approaching a problem "from the outside" and trying to apply universal, non-culture-specific principles to it.
double-bind communication
two aspects (e.g., content and tone) of the same message contradict each other.

"A" - A son says to his mother "I really hope you come to our party" while his tone and body language say "don't” - is an example of such communication. The son's verbal message contradicts his tone and body language.

In choice "B" (A husband spills milk and his wife says "good move.") the verbal message does not contradict the tone of the message, since the words "good move" in this context clearly mean that it was not a good move.

Choice C - A professor says to his class "you can turn your assignment in late, but I would advise against it." – this is the wrong answer I chose.
Existential Psychotherapy
personality is an outgrowth of the struggle between the individual and the ultimate concerns of existence, such as death, isolation, meaninglessness, and that we are ultimately responsible for our own lives.
Q - A therapy client expresses her concern that the therapist holds too much power in the therapeutic relationship. If the therapist is a feminist therapist, what is she likely to do in order to reduce the power differential between the client and therapist?
A - simply acknowledge the power differential. Feminist therapists stress the importance of minimizing or even eliminating the power differential inherent in the therapeutic relationship, as they believe that the therapist and the client should interact as equal partners. Achieving an egalitarian client-therapist relationship, however, is a gradual process, since the client enters therapy with the expectation that the therapist will hold the bulk of the power. Feminist therapists believe that acknowledging this power differential is the first step in sharing power, or changing the power structure.
Feminist Therapy
Feminist therapists attempt to promote an egalitarian therapist-client relationship. Self-disclosure is one of the ways they do this.

For the other three choices (transactional analysis, CBT, psychoanalysis) therapist self-disclosure is not necessary, and in the case of psychoanalysis, it would be seen as counter-therapeutic.
Feminist Therapy
The emphasis of feminist therapy is to show clients alternative social roles and options. One of the primary goals is empowerment. While an understanding of sexism may be helpful (A), it wouldn't be a goal. Reducing crossed transactions (B) is associated with Berne. As for choice "D," hopefully the primary goal of therapy is not more therapy.
feminist therapy
In feminist therapy, like most other forms of humanistic therapy, traditional assessment and diagnostic techniques, such as psychological testing and DSM diagnosis, are avoided. Such techniques are seen as propagating the notion that the therapist is the "expert" and the client is not. An important goal of feminist therapy is to equalize the therapist's and the patient's power.

The therapeutic alliance and self-disclosure are important in feminist therapy, even though the alliance is not characterized by the type of positive transferences that develop in psychoanalysis. Rather, it is more of a working relationship between peers. In addition, a feminist therapist would be likely to connect social and political issues, such as societally-determined gender roles, to the client's problems. And, finally, feminist therapists may encourage clients to express their anger or other feelings they may have repressed.
- theory focuses on innate, intrapsychic forces and conflicts that affect development.
According to Freud, a phobia represents:
a displacement of anxiety onto another less threatening object.
According to the theory that underlies Gestalt therapy, boundary disturbances:
result in a confusion between the point of contact between the self and the environment, often underlie maladaptive behavior and emotional responding.

Perls described a number of specific boundary disturbances, including:

confluence, in which the boundaries between the self and the environment are blurred so much that a person experiences the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of others as his own.

Projection -attribution of one's unacceptable impulses to others in the environment;

Introjection - absorption of information from the environment without true assimilation of that information;

Retroflection - substitution of self for the environment, in which a person does to self what he or she wants to do to others.
Greenson - psychoanalytic treatment involves the four steps of:
Greenson's book on technique is a standard classic in the field. He postulated that confrontation, clarification, interpretation, and working through.

1. Confrontation involves helping the patient understand that he or she is behaving in a maladaptive way.

2. Clarifying the behavior focuses on psychological processes involved in the maladaptive behaviors and feelings.

3. Interpretation wherein the psychologist repeatedly interprets the unconscious determinants of the patient's behaviors and feelings.

4. Working Through in which the interpretations are assimilated into the personality structure.
Q - The therapeutic technique of prescribing the symptom is most used by:
A – Haley - a founder of strategic family therapy, is most associated with this technique.

Haley believed that prescribing the symptom was a way to use the clients' natural tendency to resist in order to bring about positive change.
The stages of Janet Helms's White Racial Identity Development Model are ordered in the following manner:

Coke = white
Coke Drug Rehab – Pee In A cup
1. contact,
2. disintegration,
3. reintegration,
4. pseudo-independence,
5. immersion-emersion,
6. autonomy
Q - Humanism can be compared to psychoanalysis and behaviorism in that:
A - they have little in common in terms of theory or technique.

Humanistic psychology differs significantly from psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The latter two stress earlier experiences, either traumatic or conditioned, as causative of psychopathology.

Humanism stresses the person's current state. The humanistic approach stresses the individual's potential for growth and self-direction; psychoanalysis and behaviorism stress one's more or less passivity in the face of outside forces.
Q - Which of the following is least descriptive of the hypnotic state?
A - In contrast to choice C (a loss of control over one's actions from oneself to the hypnotherapist), people under hypnosis typically report that they never feel as though they are not in control of their actions when they are in a hypnotic trance. The other choices are more descriptive of hypnosis: Choice A (induction of a "trance state," which, in its deepest form, may be associated with induced visual or auditory experiences), is a good working definition of hypnosis (though a variety of others have been used); choice B (a heightened state of concentration and increased receptivity to the suggestions of another person) is true of the so-called "hypnotic trance"; and choice D describes one of the common uses of hypnosis, helping people recall repressed memories. However, hypnosis has been found to also result in false memories, and is therefore, an unreliable technique for recalling repressed memories.
1) He disagreed with Freud about the nature of the unconscious. While Freud felt the unconscious was basically oriented toward self-gratification or protection, Jung believed that it existed on two levels: personal and collective.

2) Despite their differences, Jung and Freud used many of the same techniques, such as dream analysis, free association, and analysis of transferences. Thus, Jung is interested in transferences, but his conception of transference is in line with his theory of the unconscious.
Q - Which of the following statements regarding minority group clients and premature termination from therapy is most supported by research findings?
A - Minority clients are more likely than non-minority clients to terminate therapy prematurely. The literature on this issue is not entirely consistent. However, the overall weight of the research suggests that minority clients have higher premature dropout rates. This seems to hold true even when the therapist and client are racially or ethnically matched.
Q - Which of the following would probably be least useful when working with Native American clients in a therapeutic setting?
A - relying on directive techniques such as assurances, advice, and interpretations.

The literature suggests that, generally speaking, certain techniques are more appropriate than others with members of particular groups. For instance, Native Americans tend to prefer a non-directive approach.
Q - According to "nigrescence" theory, a person in the pre-encounter stage of cultural development would most likely:
A - believe that integration or assimilation is the best way for African-Americans to solve their problems.

The term "nigrescence" means the process of becoming Black, and the Cross Model of Psychological Nigrescence posits that African-Americans traverse five stages in growth toward a more authentic African-American identity.

The Pre-Encounter stage is the first of these five stages. In the Pre-Encounter stage, the person's worldview and values are dominated by Euro-American determinants. In this stage, the person is most likely to believe that integration and assimilation are the solution to racial problems and blame African-Americans themselves for their own problems.
Object relations family therapy is a school of family therapy that is rooted in psychodynamic principles. It differs in a number of respects from family therapies based on the systems model;
a core tenet of object relations family therapy, but not most systems-based models, is that insight is a core requirement for family change.

Transference is particularly important in object relations family therapy, since it is believed that transferences resulting from the infant-child relationship persist in family relations.

Analysis of resistance is another primary feature of this form of therapy.
Q - According to psychoanalytic theory, a patient with an obsessive-compulsive neurosis is likely to strongly rely on which of the following sets of defenses?
A - reaction formation, isolation of affect, and undoing.

Reaction formation involves dealing with unacceptable impulses by substituting their opposite; the obsessive-compulsive personality is often overly rigid in matters of morality and ethics.

Isolation of affect involves separation of thoughts from the feelings associated with them; the obsessive-compulsive personality, while able to describe affectively charged events, prefers to avoid discussing feelings about them.

Undoing involves behaviors designed to symbolically negate unacceptable thoughts or actions;

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder often involves ritualistic compulsions in response to obsessions.
paradoxical interventions
An adolescent girl tells her therapist that she is not going to stop misbehaving in class. The therapist responds by saying "OK, I don't want you to stop." The therapist's response is an example of paradoxical interventions - instructing a patient to engage in the symptomatic behavior, as the therapist is doing in this case. The goal is usually to harness the patient's expected resistance toward positive change. In this example, the therapist probably expects that the girl will resist his instruction and begin to change her behavior.
Q - Unconscious mental processing is called primary process thinking. This primary process functions according to the:
A – pleasure principle.

Freud described primary process thinking as governed by the id and functioning according to the pleasure principle.

Conscious mental process is governed by the conscious part of the ego and is termed secondary process thinking.

Free association was Freud's technique of having client's report all their thoughts without any censuring.
"process (or systems) consultants"
A = they view the entire organization as the consultee.

B = they believe that improving satisfaction among members of the organization will improve the organization as a whole.

C = they focus on improving interpersonal skills.
Q - The notion of "psychic determinism" is best illustrated by which of the following?
A – slips of the tongue.

According to the psychoanalytic notion of psychic determinism, all behavior and psychic events have a meaning and a purpose. This notion was spelled out in Freud's book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, in which he described the meaning behind seemingly random behaviors, such as forgetting of proper names and slips of the tongue.
Q - According to psychoanalytic theory, the ego defense mechanisms function to:
A - keep unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness.

The function of the ego defense mechanisms is to keep unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness. Anxiety results when the defense mechanisms break down and fail to control "psychic excitation," or the entry of unconscious impulses into consciousness.
Q - In their 1987 meta-analysis of the psychotherapy outcome research on children and adolescents, Weisz et al. report a larger effect size for behavioral than nonbehavioral treatments. Their more recent (1995) meta-analysis:
A - confirms their previous findings by showing that behavioral methods have significantly more positive effects than nonbehavioral methods. The more recent Weisz et al. meta-analysis confirmed some of the findings of the earlier analysis but disconfirmed other findings. Both meta-analyses did find behavioral treatments to be significantly more effective than nonbehavioral treatments.
Q - According to analyses of psychotherapy outcome studies, patient improvement as a function of number of sessions of treatment can be plotted as a curve which is:
A - negatively accelerated.

Research indicates that improvement in psychotherapy is linear up to about 26 sessions after which the rate levels off. If time is plotted on the x axis and improvement on the y axis, the resulting curve would be negatively accelerated. This is a curve which rises sharply at first but then begins to flatten out.
quality assurance reviews
- In the health care business, quality assurance reviews are conducted by organizations such as HMOs or independent overseers to review the quality of services provided.

Areas of focus would include patient satisfaction, access to tx and tx effectiveness.

Because the cost of services is not directly related to their quality, it would probably not be a focus of a quality assurance review.
A – In Ellis's A-B-C model,

A is the activating event,
B refers to the person's belief about A,
C symbolizes the emotions and behaviors that follow A.

According to Ellis, dysfunctional emotions and behaviors (C) are due to irrational beliefs about events (B), rather than the events themselves (A).
Q - For followers of Carl Rogers, psychological maladjustment is rooted in:
A - inconsistency between the self-concept and experience.

According to Rogers, psychological maladjustment is caused by an incongruence (inconsistency) between the self-concept and experience. When a person's self-concept is incongruent with evaluations made by others, the person may distort, deny, or selectively perceive the external information.
Rogers – Client-Centered Therapy
According to Rogers, we all have a "self-actualizing tendency", which is an innate capacity for growth and development towards our maximum potential. From this perspective, maladjustment occurs when this self-actualizing tendency is blocked by outside forces. For instance, Rogers believed that "conditions of worth" placed on the person by others lead to an incongruence between the real and the ideal self; this incongruence blocks a person from self-actualization by impairing the self-concept and leaving him or her vulnerable to anxiety and disorganization.
Rogers' Client-Centered Therapy
- The idea behind Rogers' client-centered therapy is that the process of the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist is the mutative force in treatment. Hence, the client changes as he or she experiences the relationship.

If clients come to treatment with problems which relate to the lack of proper experiences in relationships, then, in effect, they all have the same problem and assessment is unnecessary. Further, by diagnosing and labeling a person, one tends to focus on a symptomatic "problem" instead of the lack of congruence in relationships.
Q - A contamination response on the Rorschach indicates:
A - a psychotic or neurological disorder.

On the Rorschach, contamination (or CONTAM) is one of the "special" scores that indicate unusual or notable characteristics in a response.

A CONTAM is one of the rarer and more serious of the special scores. It is a response involving a bizarre and inappropriate combination in which one response is psychologically overlaid on another (e.g., two responses seen in the same blot area, as in a double exposure). Even one CONTAM is a good indication of the type of cognitive dysfunction that occurs in psychotic or serious neurological disorders.
Q - Which of the following would likely be the most effective treatment for a 5-year old child who is afraid of a dark room?
A - self-control.

This question is difficult because three of the four choices give techniques — systematic desensitization, self-control, participant modeling — that have been successfully used in the treatment of children's fears. To answer it correctly, you need to be familiar with a specific research study, in which children aged 5-6 were trained in the self-control procedure of repeating sentences to themselves, such as "I am a brave boy (girl) and I can take care of myself in the dark," and "The dark is a fun place to be." Results indicated that children in the self-control group stayed in the dark longer than children in the comparison group, who rehearsed sentences related to Mary Had A Little Lamb.

The effectiveness of systematic desensitization is a matter of debate. One variant of desensitization — contact desensitization, in which the desensitization process is carried out by exposing the child to each step on the fear hierarchy only after the step has been modeled by the therapist — has been shown to be effective for a number of fears, including snake phobia and fear of swimming pools. And research is generally supportive of the notion that modeling techniques are effective in treating children's fears; however, they are primarily used in the treatment of fears of animals, social withdrawal, impending dental/medical treatment, and test anxiety.
is used to obtain data on a target behavior. It also has the advantage of changing the behavior in the desired direction.
did not believe that we are "born pessimistic"; he would be more likely to say that we are blank slates shaped by the environment as we grow.
Q - The technique known as social skills training would be most useful for:
A - altering behavioral excesses and deficits in a child with ADHD.

Social skills training is classified as a behavioral technique, and knowing this would have helped you answer this question. It is used primarily to reduce behavioral excesses and to correct behavioral deficits by teaching new behaviors.
Q - A mother complains that her husband and daughter are always criticizing her and seem to "gang up" against her. According to a structural family therapist, this is an example of:
A – a coalition.

You were probably able to narrow this down to a coalition and a triangle. For structural family therapists, a coalition occurs when there is an alliance (usually covert) between two family members against a third member - which is the situation described in this question.

The term triangle could also apply to this situation since it has several definitions in the family therapy literature, although it usually refers to a child having to choose one parent over the other and then acting as a go-between , carrying messages from one parent to the other.

Detouring refers to the dynamic of spouses reinforcing deviant behavior in a child to take the focus off of their own problems.
Q - According to family systems theory, the information exchanged by a family that maintains homeostasis by decreasing deviation from a steady state is:
A – negative feedback.

According to systems theory, a family ordinarily attempts to maintain homeostasis and stability. When it begins to deviate from homeostasis, information from within the system helps return the family to its stable state. This information is referred to as negative feedback. By contrast, information that increases deviation from homeostasis is called positive feedback.
Tertiary prevention
is designed to reduce the long-term effects of a disorder or condition that has already occurred and to prevent relapse. Thus, a program designed to reduce recidivism in persons who have already committed a crime exemplifies tertiary prevention.
"Theme interference"
is a term coined by Caplan and refers to a type of transference that may be a focus of consultee-centered consultation in organizations.
Q - Which of the following best describes Irvin Yalom's opinion about whether a group therapist should use self-disclosure?
A - If used properly, it is a good idea, since it can help shape group norms and activate a focus on the here-and-now.

In contrast to the traditional psychoanalytic view, Yalom believed that the judicious use of therapist self-disclosure is useful in group therapy, in that it can increase the leader's flexibility, help shape group norms, and result in activation of the here-and-now.
Yalom - poor candidates for heterogeneous outpatient group tx
sociopathic (along with brain damaged, hypochondriacal, paranoid, substance-addicted, and acutely psychotic) individuals were poor candidates for heterogeneous outpatient therapy groups.

According to Yalom, the sociopath consumes an inordinate amount of group energy, rarely assimilates group norms, and often exploits other members and the group as a whole for his or her immediate gratification.
Q - In a therapy group, members are in conflict because some group members want everyone to be required to provide information about themselves. Other group members don't want to disclose information about themselves and instead just want to ask questions about the other members. In this situation, Irvin Yalom would:
A - have group members discuss and process the conflict.

Yalom, in his book, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, notes that some conflict is inevitable in group therapy or any group situation. He believed that conflict has therapeutic advantages and that too little (or too much) conflict is counterproductive to group therapy. When conflict arises, it has to be managed and processed before it gets out of hand and destroys the communication and cohesiveness of the group. To process conflict, Yalom believes that it must be played out and then understood; that is, underlying causes should be identified and discussed. For example, conflict may result from sources such as transferences, projective identification, rivalry for the therapist's attention, profound differences in outlook among group members, etc. And in the case of conflict over self-disclosure, the therapist may specifically want to discuss individual or group processes that pose obstacles to self-disclosure.