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16 Cards in this Set

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watercolor
paint suspended in water soluble vehicle

Any paint that uses water as a solvent. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors. What carries the pigment in watercolor (called its medium, vehicle, or base) is gum arabic. An exception to this rule is water miscible oil paints, which employ water as their solvent, but are actually oil paints.
gouahce
pigment suspended in water - larger particles, higheter water/pigment ration than watercolor. - can use a white pigment

A heavy, opaque watercolor paint, sometimes called body color, producing a less wet-appearing and more strongly colored picture than ordinary watercolor. Also, any painting produced with gouache.

(pr. gwahsh)
acrylic
fast drying paint containing pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion

Synthetic paints, with pigments dispersed in a synthetic vehicle made from polymerized acrylic acid esters, the most important of which is polymethyl methacrylate. First used by artists in the late 1940s, their use has come to rival that of oil paints because of their versatility. They can be used on nearly any surface, in transparent washes or heavy impasto, with matte, semi-gloss, or glossy finishes. Acrylic paints dry quickly, do not yellow, are easily removed with mineral spirits or turpentine (use acetone if those don't remove enough), and can clean up with soap and water.
ink
liquid that contains pigment/dies - used to color a surface

Liquid or paste media containing pigment(s) and used for writing, pen and brush drawing, and printing. Writing inks, even blacks, are rarely sufficiently permanent to be used for art purposes. Black drawing ink, known as India ink in the United States, is especially made for use in permanent works. When it dries it is water resistant, enabling it to be gone over with a wash or watercolor. Also available is a water-soluble drawing ink; though otherwise permanent, it is capable of being washed away with water, and may be preferred to water-resistant ink for certain work. Chinese ink is similar to India ink, although various minor ingredients are added to enhance its brilliancy, range of tone, and working qualities. Most colored drawing inks are not permanent; those made with permanent pigments are usually labeled with names of pigment ingredients rather than the names of hues. Printing ink is actually more closely related to paints than to the pen and brush inks.
egg tempera
permanent fast drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with water soluble binder medium (egg yolk)

A paint and process involving an emulsion of oil and water. It was in use before the invention of oil paints. Traditionally it involves an egg emulsion; thus the term egg tempera. The pigments or colors are mixed with an emulsion of egg yolks (removed from their sacs) or of size, rather than oil, and can be thinned and solved with water. Also known as egg tempera and temper. A varnish for tempera paints, called glair may be prepared by mixing egg whites with a little water, then beating them, and applying once the bubbles are gone.
fresco
painting done on plaster on walls or ceiling
casein
fast drying, water-soluble medium used by artists.

MILK

A paint much like opaque watercolor in which casein — a milk glue — is its binder. Casein is a white, tasteless, odorless protein precipitated from milk by rennin. Casein is the basis of cheese, and is used to make plastics, adhesives, and foods, as well as paint. Casein paint can be used on paper or board for light impasto, for underpainting, wall decoration, etc. Casein paint is too inflexible for use on canvas.
gesso
white primer
support
canvas - linen/cotton
paper
panel (wood)

The term "support" refers to any material onto which paint is applied. Canvas, wood, and paper are common painting supports, but the types of supports used for artwork are very extensive. Cave walls and animal skins were among the first supports. Plaster frescos and wooden panels later became prominent, which eventually gave way to linen and cotton canvases. Modern supports such as polyester canvases, AcrylaWeave® and Syntra® panels will most likely succumb to other advancing technology. The search for the ideal support is perhaps a never-ending quest, and is very much influenced by the types of materials available at the time.

Today's most common supports include acid-free papers, illustration board, cotton canvas, linen, polyester canvas, masonite, aluminum, and various wood panels and plywoods.
zinc titanium
whites
calcium carbonate
filler
primer
white pigment

An undercoating paint applied to a surface, sealing it, creating a better bond (adhesion), and providing a ground for a painting. Applying such a ground is called priming.

(pr. PRI:-mər)
filler
calcium carbonate

A powdered or ground substance added to a paint or sculpture material to give extra bulk or body. Fillers for resin also make the material opaque.
binder
rabbit skin glue

The ingredient in the vehicle of a paint which adheres the pigment particles to one another and to the ground. It creates uniform consistency, solidity, and cohesion.
glue-ground
absorbant brittle - to put on canvas, add oil - called emulsion

Size crystals or powder mixed with water produce a gelatinous solution which forms the binder for gesso. Glue size added to plaster retards the drying process, giving the plaster a longer working time. Rabbit skin is a source for glue size traditionally used in preparing a ground for oil painting.
vehicle
In the visual arts, that which carries a paint's pigments, and is also called a medium or a base. The vehicle is what determines what kind of paint is produced. A painter can mix a vehicle with its solvents, pigments and other substances in order to make paint (or dye or ink) and control its consistency. A variety of vehicles are available that provide a matte, semi-gloss, or glossy finish. Just as motorized vehicles move us around on our planet, think of these substances as moving pigments around on various supports.
The Vehicle for the Paint vehicle paint
linseed oil oil paint
gum arabic watercolor
gum arabic gouache
casein (milk-glue) casein
egg-yolk egg tempera
gum triganth student tempera
beeswax or other waxes encaustic
fresco plaster

Be careful not to confuse "vehicle" with " solvent." Thanks to Julie Shaw at BCC in Chico!

Also see binder, casein, gouache, tempera, miscible, solvent, turpentine, viscosity, watercolors, water-soluble, and wetting agent.