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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Common Sense
Written by Thomas Paine. CS called boldly for independence; attacked King George III and the monarchy itself; as a result, Continental Congress unleashed privateers against Brit. Commerce, opened American ports, established state govts.
Aka Torries; those who hesitated to take up arms against Brit., about 1000 fled during war with Gen. Howe.
1781; victory for the combined French and American forces.
Declaration of Independence
Declared that the 13 colonies were "free and independent states" and that "all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be dissolved." Justified separation from British Crown; work of Second Continental Congress.
Franco-American Alliance
1778 - French wanted to get back at Britain, and saw helping America as a way to do so.
Articles of Confederation
1777 - Provided a legal basis for the authority Continental Congress had already been exercising; each state had one vote; Article 11 defined limit of nat'l power; inadequate because the central govt lacked authority to impose tax and enforce its power.
Peace of Paris
1783 - British gave up trying to suppress the rebellion after Yorktown; they acknowledged existence of the U.S.; boundaries were set at the Great Lakes, Miss. River, and 31 degrees north latitude (roughly north boundary of Florida).
Olive Branch Petition
Written by Congress, 1775, outlined issues and asked George III to fix them, but he refused.
Imposts and Indirect Tax
Section 8 of the Constitution - Congress has power to lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the U.S.; but all Duties, Imposts, and Excises shall be uniform throughout the U.S.
Shays' Rebellion
MA govt attempted to impose harsh taxes that fell most heavily on farmers and others of modest income; they were unable to pay, and Daniel Shays led mobs which forcibly prevented courts from holding sessions; "rebels" marched on Springfield and prebented state supreme court from meeting. Sate troops sent against them; Says fled to Vermont.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Goal was to raise money (Since Congress didn't have power to tax) by selling land in the territory west of the colonies. Also provided for political organization of these territories.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Established the precedent by which the U.S would expand westward (by admitting new states instead of expanding existing ones). Slavery prohibited in territories.
Annapolis Convention
5 states met to "discuss common problems of commerce", yet decided not to make changes due to the lack of reps from other states. Hamilton suggested they meet in Philadelphia to "fix" the Articles of Confederation.
Great Compromise
Delegates at Great Convention decided to have bicameral legislature: House of Reps depended on population (VA plan), while the Senate had equal numbers of reps per state (NJ plan).
Elastic Clause
Article in Constitution: "All laws which shall be necessary and proper" - Strict constructionists argue for what should be "Necessary" while loose constructionists argue for what is "Proper".
Opposed Constitution - pro state's rights and against a strong nat'l govt. Loosened up when they were promised the Bill of Rights.
Bill of Rights
first 10 Amendments to the Constitution
Federalist Papers
Series of papers written by Hamilton, John Jay, and Madison to convince people of NY to support the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
Separation of powers/branches of govt; by dividing powers between legislature, no one branch can be too powerful.
Virginia Plan
Wanted National Legislature based on population, favored by larger states
New Jersey Plan
Equal representation for each state regardless of population, favored by smaller states.
Funding and Assumption
Hamilton's Economic Plans!
1. Funding: funding nat'l debt; use bonds (citizens lend Gov't money) - those who gave $ will pay taxes in order to get their money back.
2. Assumption: the central govt assumes all state debts. These plans lead to formation of Political Parties.
Edmund Genet
French rep sent to US to seek support for France - and had much support. He illegally commissioned privateers, which angered Washington.
Jay's Treaty
Crap Treaty!! Washington sent John jay to get a treaty with UK to solve problems impressment was causing. Brit. made no real concessions. However, Spain heard about the treaty, and this lead to Pickney's Treaty.
Pickney's Treaty
Granted US free navigation of Miss. River and the right of deposit at New Orleans that western Americans desperately needed.
Whiskey Rebellion
Hamilton places a tax on whisky, Americans refuse to pay; Washington raises an army, but the 'rebellion' dissipates before any fighting begins. Shows that the govt will use force.
Election of 1796
John Adams (Federalist), VP is Jefferson (Republican).
Washington's Farewell Address
1796 - 1. US must stay neutral - don't get involved in foreign affairs, the US is too weak at this point.
2. Do not form political parties.
XYZ Affair
American delegates go to France to meet with 3 French delegates (X, Y and Z) to get French to stop attacking American ships; French minister demands bribes, America refuses. War fervor growing.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed 1798 by Adams - Feds paranoid. Govt has power to kick immigrants out during war, immigrants had to live in US 14 years before citizenship, malicious criticism of govt officials illegal.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
By Madison (VA) and Jefferson (KY) that claimed that individual states could decide whether a law was constitutional or not. A reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Lewis and Clark
Explored far west, 1803 - 1806, lead by Sacagawea.
Burr Conspiracy
Tensions between Jefferson and Burr, his VP, had grown. Burr attempted to rally support of secession of the western states. He wanted to be Emperor Burr!! But, his general Wilkinson betrayed him to Jeff, who tried to convict him. Marshall hated Jeff though, and let Burr off.
Chesapeake Leopard Affair
1807; The Chesapeake was a US ship that had just left port when the UK Leopard ordered it to pull over. When it did, a Brit. officer demanded that 3 Am. and one Brit. sailor be handed over. When C refused, L opened fire and killed 3. Zenith of naval conflict between US and Europe.
Embargo Act
Result of Chesapeake Leopard Affair - No American ship could leave its port. Merchants were outraged, was a disaster for Jefferson.
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for Brit. or French ports. Like its predecessor Embargo Act, it had little effect, leading to the War of 1812. Followed by Macon's Bill #2.
Macon's Bill #2
1810 - LIfted all embargoes with England or France if they stopped molesting American shipping. If they did not, embargo would be restored. France stopped infringement, but England did not (although French only pretended to stop, there fore considered Madison's blunder). => War of 1812!
War Hawks
Young Western Congressmen with lots of nationalistic fervor who loved war and pushed for the War of 1812.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 - Ended the War of 1812. However, news of the treaty didn't reach those at the Battle of North America in time for the Battle of New Orleans to be stopped. However, this treaty didn't resolve the main issue of war, which was impressment of sailors; though impressment died out soon after.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Demilitarized the Great Lakes - between US and Great Britain.
Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Spain gave Florida to the US and the US/Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico.