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50 Cards in this Set

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John Winthrop
Minister that set up the MA Bay Colony; invested faith in God and put efforts in the task of creating a spiritual community
Roger Williams
Very extreme separatist; arrived in MA in 1631, by opposing alliance of church and civil gov't, he turned both ministers and magistrates against him - insisted magistrates should have no voice in spiritual matters, and thought it was a "national sin" to take possession of land with out purchasing it from the Indians. He was banished by the General Court, and founded the colony of Rhode Island.
Visible Saints
Puritans who declared themselves separated from the national church and remade themselves into communities of "visible saints", withdrawn from the English City of man and into a self-proclaimed City of God.
Dominion of New England
After Charles 1 was executed, Charles II and James II sought to bring the colonies under effective royal control; MA seemed in particular need of "supervision" and in 1684, its charter was annulled, as were the colonies north of PA, and they became part of the Dominion of New England. The DoNE was governed by Edmund Andros, and fell victim to the Glorious Revolution two years later.
Nathaniel Bacon
Lead Bacon's Rebellion, which brought forth the difference between the rich and poor.
Indentured Servants
Resembled apprentices, servant agreed to work for 5-7 years, they received no compensation beyond their keep. Women were forbidden to marry, and if pregnant, time lost was added to their terms of service. Servants lacked full civil/political rights, but they could sue.
Middle Passage
Muscovy Company spent large sums searching for a passage to China around Scandinavia, and dispatched 6 overland expeditions in an effort to reach East Asia by way of Russia and Persia; this passage is nonexistent.
Great Awakening
This ended religious apathy - emotional upheaval involving "evangelical zeal and spiritual enthusiasm" - lead to theological split between traditional (usu. upper class) and revivalists - eventually fostered toleration and pluralism; the first national event in American history. GA started by George Whitefield.
Jonathan Edwards
"Fire and Brimstone" preacher
Congregationalism
The system of government and religious beliefs of a Protestant denomination in which each member church is self-governing.
Triangular Trade
New England makes Rum which is taken to Africa and traded for slaves, which are traded for sugar in the West Indies, sugar is brought back to New England.
John Smith
A Captain who realized that building houses and raising food was important; pleaded with company official in London for colonists who worked with their hands
William Berkely
Royal Governor of Jamestown. Ruled VA for 30+ years, was disliked by "outsiders" for his use of offices to accumulate wealth.. When a group lead by Bacon asked for permission to get more land from Indians, he refused, and Bacon's Rebellion happened. Berkely driven out.
Mayflower Compact
Equal and Just laws for the good of the Colony; derived its power from the consent of the governed.
Jacob Leisler
In New York after the abdication of King James II, Leisler seized control of the govt, but held power less than 2 years before being overthrown. However, New York politics still continued to be a struggle between Leislerians (who disliked Eng. Rule) and anti-Leislerians (who opposed Leisler's takeover).
Deism
A faith that revered God for the marvels of His universe rather than for his power over humankind.
Separatists
1606 - Pilgrims worried about future of faith; they left the Anglican church, calling it corrupt.
Anne Hutchinson
Charged for antinomianism and defamin the clergy; arrived in Boston 1631; A visible saint who went too far. Went to Rhode Island after being banished by the General Court.
Half-Way Covenant
Religious fervor had slackened in the 3rd generation colonists (not members of church). The HWC provided limited membership for any applicant not known to be a sinner who was willing to accept the provisions of the church covenant. They and their children could be baptized, but only full members could have communion and a voice in the church.
Penn's "Holy Experiment"
Colony created by William Penn - treated Indians fairly, and anyone believing in "on Almighty and Eternal God" was entitled freedom of worship. Attracted many settlers.
House of Burgesses
Rudimentary form of self-govt instituted in 1619; consisted of delegates chosen in each district; met at Jamestown to advise Governor on local problems.
Headright
System - land should be given out accordingly to availability of labor to cultivate it - each person gained 50 acres unoccupied land, but had to mark out boundaries, plant a crop, and construct habitation (adopted by all colonies south of NY).
Enlightenment
"Age of Reason" - marked by great advances in science and belief in humans' rational powers; changes in religious thought, political theories (John Locke).
Mercantilism
Sell more than you import - colonies send raw materials to mother country, who sends finished goods to colonies and other countries for gold.
Great Migration
Farmers, artisans and around 150 university (divinity) trained colonists came as a result of the persecution of Puritans in England.
Covenant of Grace
A man can gain salvation from God by fearing, believing, and serving him wholeheartedly; salvation in return for faith and obedience. (as opposed to Covenant of Works - salvation by doing "good deeds")
London Company-Virginia Company
1606/07 - sent 100 settlers to Chesapeake Bay area, and founded Jamestown. First permanent English Colony in the New World. Encouraged tobacco growth & profit.
Seasoning Time
A period of illness and disease the Pilgrims had to survive.
Toleration Act of 1649
Guaranteed freedom of religion to anyone who believed in Christ (attracted settlers to Maryland).
Navigation Acts
A series of laws passed by Parliament starting in the 1650s; restricted trade of colonies to England.
John Peter Zenger
A printer who edited the New York Weekly Journal; charged with libeling Gov. William Cosby - Freedom of Press
Salutary Neglect
England looked the other way when Americans violated the Navigation Acts. Robert Wallpole (Prime Minister of England) - "if no restrictions are placed on the colonies, they will flourish".
Tea Act 1773
Parliment gave East India Company a monopoly on the tea trade in America; Americans didn't want England controlling their commerce. Lead to Boston Tea Party.
Albany Plan of Union
Proposed by Ben Franklin; unite the seven colonies and govern them by a President-General and Grand Council, but still be part of England.
Writs of Assistance (1761)
Authorized use of general search warrants in MA; no evidence or specific court orders were needed.
Townshend Acts (1767)
Taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea; also set up courts with out juries to enforce trade laws; colonists responded with more boycotts and increased their own manufacturing.
First Continental Congress
1774 - meeting of delegates from all colonies (except Georgia): general consensus was that "if taxation without representation was tyranny, so was all legislation." Passed declarations that amounted to a complete condemnation of Britain's actions since 1763.
Second Continental Congress
A body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the colonies; they adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. Acted as the govt during the Revolutionary War by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Restored peace; France gave up North America except for two small islands; got the sugar islands back.
Sugar Act (1764)
Taxed sugar, coffee, wines, etc.; colonies didn't think Parliament had the right to tax them without representation.
Stono Rebellion
One of the earliest known organized acts of rebellion against slavery in what is now the United States.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade colonists from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain wanted to establish its vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with Native Americans through trade, settlement,, and land purchases.
Coercive Acts (1774)
Reaction to the Tea Party; Boston harbor was closed, MA charter was changed, it provided for trial transfers to outside colony; punished community for individuals' crimes.
Stamp Act Congress
Intercolonial organization that passed resolutions protesting the Stamp Act; called it "taxation without consent".
Declaratory Act (1766)
Said colonies were "subordinate", Parliament could write any law it wanted concerning America.
Boston Massacre (1770)
Colonists threw rock-filled snowballs at Redcoats, who panicked and shot 5 people.
Virtual Representation
The idea that "the colonies were represented in parliament because every member of that body stood for the interests of the entire empire" - favored by Britain.
Actual Representation
Geographically based legislature: members of the assembly represent people from a certain region - favored by Americans
Sam Adams
Led Boston Tea Party - "revolutionary agitator" in Boston
Sons of Liberty
Organization founded in 1765; rioted against Stamp Act