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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Lowell factory
: It was established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing, eliminating the need for cottage industries. Also, it hired mainly young girls, separating these girls from their families.
spoils system
Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office," the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy. This is also known as patronage.
The National Republican party altered its name to this during Jackson’s second term. They were united by their opposition of Jackson’s policies, committed to Clay’s American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development. They became a national party with appeal by 1836.
Trail of Tears
A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5.6 million. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty. Between 1835 and 1838, 16,000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. 2,000 to 4,000 Cherokees died.
Maysville Road veto
President Jackson vetoed a bill to grant federal aid for a road in Kentucky in 1830. He believed that internal improvements violated the principle that Congress could appropriate money for objectives only shared by all Americans. It increased Jackson’s popularity in the South.
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams wins this crowded election with 4 Democratic Republican candidates featuring Adams (84 electoral votes), William Crawford (41), Henry Clay (37), and Andrew Jackson (99). With no candidate in the majority, the House decided the election between the 3 highest vote recipients (Adams, Jackson, and Crawford). Clay, the Speaker of the House, threw his support to Adams, who won the election. Jackson claimed a corrupt bargain between Adams and Clay when Clay was named Secretary of State.
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson, scorned in the previous election, was vilified in his defeat of Adams 178-83. The party of Jefferson split into the National Republicans (Adams) and Democratic Republicans, later shortened to Democrats (Jackson). This election was the first with universal (white) manhood suffrage and began the era of the common man in politics. This election was also highly sectionalized with Jackson winning the south and west and Adams winning the northeast
Election of 1832
Jackson, a strong defender of states’ rights and Unionism won the presidency with 219 electoral college votes. The National Republicans ran Henry Clay (49 E.C. votes) whose platform consisted of his American System. The Anti-Masonic Party ran William Wirt who received 7 electoral votes.
Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren, Jackson’s hand picked successor, defeated a split Whig party led by William Henry Harrison 170-73. The Whigs ran sectional candidates who, even as a group, could not muster enough votes to defeat Van Buren.
Nicholas Biddle operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. Many opposed the Bank because it was big and powerful. Some disputed its constitutionality. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill to recharter the Bank. He removed the federal government’s deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans, hoping for a retraction by Jackson, which never occurred. A financial recession resulted.
Roger B. Taney
Jackson disciple who removed federal funds from the BUS and placed them in “pet banks”, while serving as Secretary of the Treasury. Later became the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and was known for protecting states rights at the expense of the federal government and by introducing the public good into decisions.
Webster-Hayne Debate
Nine days of debate initially over the sale of western land. This became a debate over states’ rights versus union. Demonstrates the growing sectionalism of the period.
Peggy Eaton affair
Jackson’s administration was torn apart through the avoidance of his Secretary of Defense’s wife by the other wives of his cabinet and advisors. True to form, Jackson came to the defense of this young woman.
Calhoun introduced the idea in his SC Exposition and Protest. States that suffered from the tariff of 1828 had the right to nullify or override the law within their borders. Jackson proclaimed that this was unconstitutional and that the Constitution established "a single nation," not a league of states.
Martin Van Buren
A leader in the Albany Regengy and Bucktails which became the basis of the first political machine to encompass the masses. He served as Secretary of State under Jackson and was his handpicked successor as the eighth president.
Independent Treasury Plan
Instead of depositing its revenue in state banks, Van Buren persuaded Congress keep the revenue itself and thereby withhold public money from the grasp of business cooperation. This idea was later espoused by Al Gore who wanted to place Social Security funds in a “Lock Box”
This group included many brilliant philosophers, writers, poets lecturers and essayists, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Serving briefly as a Unitarian minister, he was a popular essayist and lecturer. The topics of his essays were broad and general. He wrote on subjects such as "Beauty," "Nature," and "Power." He was a Transcendentalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God, and that truth was inborn and universal.
Henry David Thoreau
He was considered to be a "doer." He wrote On Civil Disobedience to defend the right to disobey unjust laws. He was also a Transcendentalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose.
Walt Whitman
By writing Leaves of Grass, he broke the conventions of rhyme and meter to bring new vitality to poetry. Not only did he write in free verse, but his poems took on a different style, being energetic and candid at a time when humility were accepted in the literary world.
Alexis de Tocqueville
A French Civil servant who wrote Democracy in America, he traveled to this country in the early 1830s to study the prison system. His book reflected the broad interest in the entire spectrum of the American democratic process and the society which it had developed.
lyceum movement
Began by Josiah Holbrok in the 1820, they were local organizations that sponsored public lectures. These lectures were held on such topics as astronomy, biology, physiology, geology, conversation. The spread of these lecture revealed the widespread hunger for knowledge and refinement.
Cult of Domesticity
The idea that true women remained in the home to care for the family while removing themselves from the world of work and politics. The world was a man’s world and its treachery would spoil the women who were not strong enough to overcome it. This idea empowered women to be the spiritual leaders of the family.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Wrote a thesis on the Significance of the West in development of the United States. Charged that the frontier created a truly American culture and character and that the frontier made the U.S. unique. Criticized later for not giving credit to the Native Americans.
“Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too”
Significance of being a war hero and a westerner overshadowed Harrison’s lack of a stance on most issues.
Tariff of Abomination
1824 tariff that raised the rate from 23% (1824) to 37%. This tariff was proposed by Jackson supporters to be so high that no section would want to have it passed. John Quincy Adams signed it due to pressure from New England and he quickly lost popularity in the west and south which paved the way for the Jackson presidency.
Election of 1840
The “log cabin and hard cider campaign” of Harrison appealed to the masses, while the dandy Van Buren seemed to appeal to the wealthy or elite interests. Harrison, Whig, was able to defeat Van Buren, Democrat, 234-60 in a reversal of the previous election.
Kitchen Cabinet
Unofficial advisors and friends of Jackson would meet occasionally to discuss policy. This cabinet was not overly influential and was blown out of proportion by Jackson’s opponents.