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103 Cards in this Set

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Aztecs settle in the Valley of Mexico
1300
Columbus lands in the Bahamas
1492
Martin Luther challenges Catholic Church
1517
Founding of Jamestown
1607
French establish Quebec under Champlain
1608
King Philip's War and Bacon's Rebellion
1675-1676
La Salle claims Mississippi Valley for France
1682
French establish Louisiana
1699
Height of Mayan civilization
300-900
Asian migration across Beringia
38,000-12,000 BC
The forerunner of the vast majority of Indian languages in the Americas
Amerind
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion
Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639
Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
Five waves of immigrants who first peopled America
Asian, Polynesian, Norseman
Device that permitted accurate calculation of latitude or distances north and south.
Astrolabe
Advanced Indian society located in present day Mexico City. Engaged in the most human sacrifices. Conquered by Cortes in 1519
Aztec
1676 - Virginia settlers were angry at Gov. Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after they attacked western settlements. Frontiersmen form army that defeats the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city.
Bacon's Rebellion
First European to reach Pacific Ocean via Panama in 1513
Balboa
He convinced Charles I to signs the "New Laws" prohibiting Indian slavery and attempted to put an end to the encomienda system by limiting ownership of serfs to a single generation.
Bartolome de Las Casas
geographic location, navigation (compass & astrolabe), Caravel
Basis of Portugal's leadership
exposed during Ice Age, land bridge spanning 600 miles between Siberia and Alaska
Beringia
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king's powers in taxing and prohibited the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime
Bill of Rights, 1689
explores from Florida to Mexico
Cabeza de Vaca
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative governme
Calvinism
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt. Headrights and a representative government attracted colonists. South grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, North was composed mainly of farmers.
Carolinas
Reduced migration: wages had increased in England; dependable work force; cheap labor: as tobacco prices fell, rice and indigo became profitable crops, but both required extensive land and labor.
Causes of Slavery
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
Cavaliers
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Charleston
Colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies.
Charter
The highly productive gardens built on Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs.
chinampas
Miscalculated earth's circumference (16 vs. 26 thousand miles). First modern European to make contact with the Americas in 1492 by landing in the Bahamas and later on Hispaniola.
Christopher Columbus
Superior spear point developed before 9000 B.C. Used by natives throughout Western Hemisphere. Contributed to over-hunting.
Clovis spear point
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies
Colonial agents
exchange of European products to the Americas and vice-versa. Food products, livestock and diseases are but three elements
Columbian Exchange
Spanish for conquerors. Men who traveled extensively through the Americas, leading small armies of men, and who established themselves as imperial rulers
Conquistadores
Conquered the Aztecs in1519
Cortes
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Dominion of New England
expansionist" attitude of Europeans, increased need for trade, introduced slavery, introduced sugar plantations
Effects of Crusades
A system of labor introduced into the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish. This permitted the holder, or encomendero, to claim labor from Indians in a district for a stated period of time.
encomienda
Commercial trading posts established for the early slave trade along the coast of Africa or on the small offshore islands
Factories
Federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. Also known as the "Iriquois," It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s
Five Nations
1540s explored the SW including the Grand Canyon, Texas, and as far north as Kansas
Francisco de Cornonado
1636-Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America
Fundamental Orders Connecticut
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights.
George Whitefield
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. A sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies
Great Awakening (1739-1744)
None
Large estates established by the Spanish.
hacienda
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists
Headright system
Explored the American Southeast (1539-43)
Hernando de Soto
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
Holy experiment
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
House of Burgesses
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Huguenots
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be
Indentured servants
issued 1493 by Pope Alexander VI. Divided the non-Christian world between Portugal and Spain. Revised a year later by the Treaty of Tordesillas, giving Spain most of the Western Hemisphere and ended its direct access to slaves.
Inter Caeteras
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
John Rolfe, tobacco
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter
John Smith
1629 - The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. Puritan. Opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and was its first president
John Winthrop
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts
Joint stock company
1513 Explores Florida
Juan Ponce de Leon
1675 -series of battles in New Hampshire between colonists & Wompanowogs. Led by Metacom. Started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over Indians. Colonists helped by Mohawks, won. Indian land opened for expansion
King Philip's War
1689 - King James II dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, colonists of New York rebelled and, a militia officer governor. He was hung for treason when royal authority was reinstated
Leisler's Rebellion
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Lord Baltimore
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Maryland Act of Toleration
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government
Massachusetts Bay Colony
A society that determines inheritance and roles in life based on the female or maternal line.
matrilineal
complex and advanced pre-Columbian Indian society. Chichen Itza was a leading city. Constructed canals for irrigation, developed an accurate calendar and a writing system, and practiced human sacrifice.
Maya
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Mayflower Compact
Economic policy of Europe. Government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided sources of raw materials and markets
Mercantilism
An area embracing Central and South America.
mesoamerica
war: Europeans killed enemies including women and children, Indians took captives that were tortured; cultural: European men owned property, set rules, farmed, and governed, Indian women owned property, farmed, descent was matrilineal
Misunderstandings
economic: expanding trade, search for gold, establishment of plantations; political : devleopment of nation-states; religious: Protestant Reformation; social: acquire new social standing
Motives for colonization
Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian. Evolved in Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys. Cahokia was largest permanent settlement.
Mound-builders
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660,
The period known also as the late Stone Age. Agriculture developed, and stone, rather than metal, tools were used
neolithic
Important urban and trade centers. Large number of immigrants
New York and Philadelphia
Belonged to the Dutch. King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated Governor Stuyvesant, surrendered.
New York: Dutch, 1664 English
Those like the Puritans who believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms.
Non-separatists
Offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
Patrons
One founded as protection for Quakers. One was a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Another founded for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
Pennsylvania, William Penn
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Peter Stuyvesant
Limited power of King. Parliament gained authority over taxation. Declared free citizens could not be arrested w/o cause, soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and no martial law during peacetime
Petition of Right, 1628
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms
Pilgrims and Puritans contrast
Were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor.
Proprietary Colony
Indians of the southwest that developed multistoried buildings and intricate irrigation systems for farming.
Pueblos
Self-governed. Each town had its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (the elect) could vote and hold public office
Puritan colonies
During the 1630s and 1640s the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
Puritan migration
Virtual representation, actual representation Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by
Representative government
Established by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585 and 1587. Referred to as "Lost Colony"
Roanoke
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Roger Williams, Rhode Island
Colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
Royal or Crown colonies
issued by Spanish King Philip II in 1573. Made it illegal to enslave Indians or even to attack them. Instead, unarmed priests were to bring them to together in missions and convert them into peaceful Catholic subjects of Spain.
Royal Orders for New Discoveri
1692-Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Salem witch trials
Those like the Pilgrims who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
Separatists
1619 - Africans arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch trading ship. Not all were held as slaves. In the 1660s House of Burgesses passed law whereby Africans and their offspring were to be treated as lifelong slaves.
Slavery begins
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Thomas Hooker
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town's voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws
Town meetings
1497-1499 Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and on to sw coast of India
Vasco Da Gama
First settlement by Europeans in the Western Hemisphere
Vinland
Charter colony of a joint-stock company. About 90% of the colonists died the first year. Private land ownership in the colony attracted settlers. Becomes successful when tobacco is farmed
Virginia
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
William Bradford
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
William Tennant
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
Woolens Act, 1699