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209 Cards in this Set

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For most of the 19th century, this industry was the major contributor to American economic development.
railroad
The prolific late 19th-century inventor of the electric light bulb, also known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park."
Thomas Edison
Railroads rewarded large shippers who used their lines by giving them these secret discounts on their (and sometimes their competetitor's) shipments.
rebates
A self-made millionaire from Pennsylvania, this man dominated the late 19th-century steel industry.
Andrew Carnegie
By the middle of the 1880s, John D. Rockefeller had nearly monopolized this industry in America.
oil refining
In 1890, Congress passed this act to try to outlaw corporations that formed "combinations in restraint of trade."
Sherman Antitrust Act
This was the first American Labor Union to welcome blacks, immigrants, and women into membership.
Knights of Labor
Most these laws attempted to regulate railroad rates to the benefit of American Farmers.
Granger
In 1887, Congress created America's first regulatory agency to police the affairs of the nation's railroads.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
A riot resulted when a bomb was thrown at police when they tried to break up a workers protest meeting at this location in Chicago in 1886.
Haymarket Square
The leader of the American Railway Union during the 1894 Pullman Strike.
Eugene Debs
George Westinghouse's invention in 1869 that made it possible to increase greatly the speed, size, and safety of trains.
The air brake
the late 19th-century's most successful "bread and butter" trade union, led by Samuel Gompers.
The American Federation of Labor
Befrore the invention of the gas engine and the automobile, this was the most important petroleum product, which was burned in lamps.
kerosene
A substantial minority of immigrants to America in the late 19th-century who intended to remain temporarily, then return home as relatively wealthy men.
Birds of Passage
The group that resisted to what its members called "the Catholic menace" illustrated late nineteenth-century nativism in America.
American Protective Association (APA)
Author of "How the Other Half Lives" which provided a dramatic description, in both words and photographs, of slum life in late 19th-century America.
Jacob Riis
The leader of the architects who insisted that the design of urban skyscrapers must be beautiful, but must also reflect their function.
Louis Sullivan
These companies speeded suburban growth because they assured homebuyers of efficient and relatively inexpensive transportation to work.
streetcar companies
Won the heavyweight championship in 1882 and became one of the most popular professional boxers of all time.
John Sullivan
Walter Camp was a major innovator in the sport of __________, establishing most of its modern rules.
football
An increasing proportion of slum dwellers in late nineteenth-century America were __________, but, while the church provided welfare, its leaders seemed unconcerned with the social causes of poverty.
Catholic
Supporters of this movement believed that churches should tend to improving the lives of the poor, rather than individual salvation.
Social Gospel
Was the Social Gospel movement's most influential preacher.
Washington Gladden
Community centers established in immigrant neighborhoods by idealistic, young, college-educated women to guide and assist the urban poor.
settlement houses
Founded by social worker Jane Addams in Chicago, this was the most famous of America's settlement houses.
Hull House
A contractor provided unskilled Italian immigrant workers to American employers in return for a handsome payment in this system.
padrone system
Beginning in the 1880s, America's "new" immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe; "old" immigrants had come predominantly from here.
northern Europe
The desire of late nineteenth century Americans for new information is illustrated by the popularity of the __________ movement, which presented lectures on a multitude of various topics
Chautauqua movement
After 1885, became the leading publisher of popular, mass-circulation magazines whose content and style was largely aimed at middle class Americans, especially women.
Edward Bok
The 1862 act that created the land-grant state university system in America.
Morrill Act
Opening its doors to women in 1865, this was the first women's college in the United States.
Vassar College
Was one of the most notable scientists of the late nineteenth century, and the father of physical chemistry.
Josiah Gibbs
American sociologist who presented the first major challenge to the conventional views of social Darwinists with the publication of his "Dynamic Sociology."
Lester Frank Ward
Group that argued that the operation of natural laws like "survival of the fittest" meant that government should not be active in social and economic reform.
Social Darwinists
The father of progressive education who insisted that widespread education would be a tool for social reform and a guarantee of social progress.
John Dewey
The school in literature that began to examine the crude conditions of life in American cities in a true-to-life way in the late 19th-century.
realism
Samuel Clemons, under this pen name, wrote many humorous novels and essays that were often based on his own wide range of experiences.
Mark Twain
The most influential literary critic of the late nineteenth century who described the whole range of life in American cities in his novels.
William Dean Howells
Written by naturalist writer Theodore Dreiser, this was one of the first American novels to deal with sex in a straightforward manner, and as a result, it was withdrawn from publication.
Sister Carrie
American realist artist Winslow Homer is most noted for his paintings done in brilliant ____________.
watercolor
Probably the most famous painting by an American artist, "Arrangement in Grey and Black", is popularly known by another name, and was the work of this man.
James Whistler
Was the most influential American philosopher of the late nineteenth century, and the main American proponent of pragmatism.
William James
Local and state issues interacted with __________ and ethnic background to affect people's political attitudes and their party loyalty in the late nineteenth century.
religious
Probably the most famous late nineteenth century big city political boss, boss of New York's Tammary Hall.
William Tweed
Republicans whose most obvious desire was to gain the spoils of office belonged to this wing of the party, led by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling.
Stalwart
In 1881, Charles Guiteau, a frustrated Stalwart office-seeker, assassinated this president.
James Garfield
This 1883 act was a victory for those who wanted civil service reform.
Pendleton Act
the winning candidate in 1884 and 1892, and the only Democrat elected to the presidency between 1856 and 1912.
Grover Cleveland
This Maine senator had many fine leadership qualities, but his hopes for the presidency were wrecked when it was revealed that he had performed special favors for a private railroad company.
James Blaine
In 1892, the first presidential candidate of the Populist party was this former Greenbacker and inveterate reformer from Iowa.
James Weaver
At a convention in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1992, representatives of farmers, workers, and reformers met to nominate the presidential candidate of this party, also know as the People's Party.
Populist
The free coinage of silver became the key campaign issue in this pivotal presidential election.
Election of 1872
The Coinage Act of 1873 that demonetized silver came to be known by its opponents as this.
The "Crime of '73"
During the 1896 presidential election, this issue caused a split within both the Democratic and Republican parties.
free silver
This Nebraska Congressman was nominated as the presidential candidate of the Democratic party after delivering a dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech at the 1896 convention.
William Jennings Bryan
Republican presidential candidate William McKinley's campaign manager in 1896, who raised a considerable amount of money and ran a well-organized campaign for his candidate.
Mark Hanna
The Populist party's __________ platform called for the enactment of a graduated income tax law.
Omaha platform
Lincoln Steffens, author of hard-hitting expos accent(e)s on big-city political machines, was a progressive investigative journalist of the kind labeled this by Theodore Roosevelt.
muckraker
This labor leader ran for president several times on the Socialist party ticket during the Progressive Era.
Eugene Debs
Stricter building codes and factory-inspection laws resulted from the tragic fire at the __________ factory in 1911.
Triangle Shirtwaist factory
In the case of __________, the "Brandeis brief" presented the Supreme Court with economic and sociological data demonstrating that long working hours were dangerous to women and to society.
Muller v Oregon
Headed by this woman, the Consumers' League was probably the most effective women's organization of the Progressive Era.
Florance Kelley
Progressives successfully gained the adoption of this amendment calling for popular election of U.S. senators.
the 17th
President Roosevelt invoked the Sherman Antitrust Act to force the dissolution of a railroad monopoly in this 1902 case.
the Northern Securities case
This act made the Interstate Commerce Commission a more effective regulatory agency in 1905 by granting it the authority to set maximum railroad rates.
the Hepburn Act
This Upton Sinclair novel exposed the grisly and unhealthy conditions in America's meatpacking industry.
"The Jungle"
In the 1910 __________-Pinchot controversy, President Taft made himself unpopular with conservation-minded progressives by firing the nation's chief forester.
Ballinger
In 1912, a split in the Republican party resulted in Theodore Roosevelt being the candidate of this third-party movement.
the Progressive movement
The Democratic presidential candidate in 1912, Woodrow Wilson, in a platform he called the __________, promised to use the power of the federal government to destroy monopolies and restore competition to the economy.
the New Freedom platform
In 1909, a group of white liberals and black leaders in the Niagra Movement founded this organization to combat racial discrimination.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
A strongly anticapitalist labor union led by "Big Bill" Haywood organized in 1905 that sought basic change in America's middle-class society.
Industrial Workers of the World
In 1912, __________ offered the New Nationalism and the regulation of big business as his platform for election to the presidency.
Theodore Roosevelt
During the American Civil War, France established a protectorate over this country and installed Archduke Maximilian of Austria as emperor.
Mexico
In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward negotiated the purchase of __________ from Russia for $7.2 million.
Alaska
Argued in the 1890s, that America's prosperity and national security depended on building a powerful navy.
Alfred Mahan
In 1898, the United States went to war with Spain with the intention of helping this country win its independence.
Cuba
One immediate cause of the Spanish-American War was that the Spanish were thought to be responsible for the destruction of this U.S. battleship in Havana harbor in February 1898.
Maine
In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of nationalist forces fighting for the independence of this area from Spanish authority.
the Phillipines
After the Spanish-American War, an intense national debate raged in the United States over the wisdom of annexing this territory.
the Phillipines
After the Spanish-American War, the __________ to the Cuban constitution, made Cuba a virtual protectorate of the United States
the Platt Amendment
Through this, the United States declared a police power over the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere.
the Roosevelt Corollary
Secretary of State John Hay's policy was designed to help American businesses exploit the markets of China. What policy?
the Open Door policy
In order to build the Panama Canal, President Roosevelt used American naval forces to help the Panamanians win their independence from this nation.
Colombia
President Taft's foreign policy of using American economic strength to penetrate the economies of other countries to avoid actually exercising political control of them was called this.
dollar diplomacy
As the Spanish-American War began in 1898, Congress passed this, wherein the United States claimed it had no intention of annexing Cuba.
the Teller Amendment
In 1905, President Roosevelt won the Noble Peace Prize for successfully mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War in this treaty, although the Japanese came away resentful toward the United States.
the Portsmouth Treaty
In a "Gentleman's agreement"with Japan in 1907, __________ got the San Francisco school board to stop segregating Asian children in return for a Japanese promise to close emigration to laborers who wanted to come to the United States.
President Teddy Roosevelt
When the Carranza government gained power in Mexico in 1914, it soon faced a revolt led by this man who briefly enjoyed the support of President Wilson's administration.
Pancho Villa
In 1916, President Wilson ordered an American military incursion into this country led by General John Pershing.
Mexico
Soon after World War I began in Europe in 1914, President Wilson announced he would hold this country to "strict accountability" for the loss of American lives and property that resulted from its conduct of war.
Germany
In the February 1917 Zimmermann telegram, Germany proposed a military alliance with this country if the United States entered World War I on the side of the Allies.
Mexico
During World War I, this had almost unlimited power to mobilize the American economy, fix prices, and allocate resources
the War Industries Board (WIB)
President Wilson appointed this man head of the Belgium Relief Commission, to mobilize America's agricultural resources during World War I.
Herbert Hoover
During World War I, this act threatened arrest and imprisonment for anyone who criticized the American government
the Sedition Act
This general commanded the American Expeditionary Force, the U.S. troops that went to Europe in 1917 and 1918.
John Pershing
President Wilson's plan for peace, which lifted the hopes for peace everywhere in January 1918.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
The leaders of the United States, Great Britain, France, and this nation were members of the so-called Big Four at the Paris peace conference in 1919.
Italy
The peace settlement reached at the Paris peace conference in 1919 was called this.
the Versaille Treaty
President Wilson believed that the __________ would be able to deal with any shortcomings left over from the postwar settlement reached at the Paris peace conference.
League of Nations
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, a member of this party, led the opposition to President Wilson's effort to include the United States in the League of Nations.
Republican
During this period from 1919 to 1920, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted a ruthless campaign to suppress American radicals.
the Red Scare
Idaho Senator who led the "irreconcilables" in their uncompromising opposition to U.S. membership in the League of Nations
William Borah
During the 1920s, Alice Paul, a founder of the Women's party, led the campaign for an amendment to the Constitution for this.
equal rights
After the adoption of this amendment, most married women tended to vote for the same candidates as their husbands
the Nineteenth
In the 1920s, America's popular culture was dramatically altered by the new technology of both the motion picture and this.
the radio
The live ball and the home-run-hitting ability of the "Sultan of Swat" transformed baseball into a hitter's game in the 1920s. His name was...
Babe Ruth
This popular politician, who argued against evolutionary theory at the 1924 Scopes trial, was a devout spokesman for religious fundamentalism.
William Jennings Bryan
Perhaps "the most horrible manifestation of the social malaise of the 1920s" was the revival of this group, which was active in the South, Midwest, and Oregon
the Ku Klux Klan
Author of The Great Gatsby, he was the leading symbol of the "lost generation" of American writers in the 1920s.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
H.L.__________ was America's foremost cynic in the 1920s, showing witty contempt for just about everything.
H.L. Mencken
The leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, who was especially popular with poor urban blacks.
Marcus Garvey
Perfected mass production on moving assembly lines in his automobile plants in the decade before World War I.
Henry Ford
Bruce Barton's popular book, The Man Nobody Knows, credited this man with being the founder of modern business management
Jesus Christ
This case clearly showed that in the 1920s American justice discriminated against radicals and aliens.
Sacco Vanzetti
The term "normalcy" was coined during the 1920 presidential campaign by this Republican candidate.
Warren Harding
The worst of the many scandals during the Harding administration involved the leasing of government oil reserves at __________, Wyoming
Teapot Dome
President Harding's secretary of interior, he was found guilty of accepting a bribe and spent a year in jail.
Albert Fall
The United States agreed to outlaw war as a solution to international conflict in 1928 under this.
the Kellogg-Briand Pact
During the Coolidge administration, this ambassador did much to improve U.S. relations with Mexico.
Dwight Morrow
The totalitarian challenge to the western democracies began with Japan's invasion of this place in 1931.
Manchuria
Under this, the United States stated that it would not recognize the legality of territorial seizures made in violation of its treaty rights
Stimson Doctrine
The 1924 Dawes Plan tried to solve this country's postwar financial problems by providing it a $200 million loan.
Germany
New York Governor Alfred Smith was this party's candidate for president in 1928.
Democratic
The weakest sector of the national economy during the 1920s.
agriculture
During the early part of the Great Depression, this act tried to aid farmers by allowing the Federal Farm Board to devise a mechanism for government purchase of surplus wheat and cotton
Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA)
In 1932, President Hoover approved the creation of this to lend money to insurance companies, railroads, and banks, hoping the money would "trickle down" to stimulate the economy.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
This 1930 tariff act raised import duties on most manufactured goods to protectionist levels.
Hawley Smoot
The name of the group that went to Washington, D.C. in 1932, largely consisting of unemployed World War I veterans.
the Bonus Army
The Hundred __________ refers to the flurry of activity and enormous amount of legislation Congress enacted during the first three months of President Franklin Roosevelt's first administration.
Days
This was primarily designed to provide employment for young men in soil conservation and reforestation projects.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
With this act, President Roosevelt hoped to stimulate business recovery through the artificial suspension of antitrust laws.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
This group, led by John L. Lewis, was the labor organization that tried to organize semi-skilled and unskilled workers in mass production industries in the 1930s.
the Congress of Industrial Organizations
The most serious weakness of this act was its failure to assist tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
the Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA)
This Louisiana Senator, leader of the "Share Our Wealth" movement, was perhaps the most formidable extremist opponent of President Roosevelt's New Deal program.
Huey Long
This man, the "Radio Priest," promoted a near-fascist program of anti-Semitism and opposition to the New Deal.
Charles Coughlin
Created popular support for Social Security legislation with his advocacy of federally funded old-age pensions.
Dr. Francis Townsend
In its decision in this case, the Supreme Court ruled the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional.
Schechter v. United States
This Second New Deal act gave workers the right to organize and bargain collectively with their employers
the Wagner Act
John Collier was the New Deal's Commissioner of ____________who tried to implement more humane and pluralistic policies.
Indian Affairs
In the mid-1930s, North Dakota Republican Senator who led a Senate investigation that concluded that the arms industry had conspired with bankers to drag America into World War I.
Senator Gerald Nye
In August 1939, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with this country as a prelude to their joint assault on Poland on September 1, 1939, which began World War II.
Russia
The slogan "We Do Our Part" and the Blue Eagle symbol were identified with the New Deal's _________ Administration.
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
A state-federal system of unemployment insurance was one provision of this 1935 act.
the Social Security Act
In 1941, this African American leader organized a march on Washington, D.C., to demand equal opportunity for black workers in U.S. defense plants.
Philip Randolph
In 1943, young Hispanics wearing this distinctive fashion were attacked by rioting sailors in Los Angeles.
zoot suits
the victims of the most flagrant intolerance expressed on the American home front during World War II.
Japanese Americans
Immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack, American strategists decided to concentrate on waging war against this country.
Germany
At this famous battle in December 1944, a desperate German counterattack at the German-Belgian border almost broke the Allied lines
the Battle of the Bulge
The military initiative in the Pacific shifted to the Americans as a result of the battles of the Coral Sea and _________in 1942.
Midway
The brilliant and egocentric commander of American land forces in the Pacific during World War II.
General Douglas MacArthur
As a result of the battles of the Philippine Sea and _________in 1944, Japan's sea power was destroyed.
Leyte Gulf
In 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and __________.
Nagasaki
His best-selling book, "One World", was evidence of the eclipse of isolationist thinking in America by 1942.
Wendell Willkie
The decisive authority of the United Nations is lodged in this eleven-member group.
Security Council
At this July 1945 conference, the Allies agreed to divide Germany into four zones of occupation.
Potsdam
During World War II, the income tax was extended to most workers and this system was adopted to collect the tax.
the Payroll Deduction system
A scholarly Foreign Service officer who provided the key ideas behind America's Cold War containment policy.
George Kennan
Winston Churchill coined this phrase to identify the line of division between the Western powers and communist-dominated countries of Eastern Europe.
"Iron Curtain"
In June 1948, the Soviet Union demonstrated its dislike of U.S. policies in Western Europe by closing off ground access to ________.
West Berlin
During the Korean War, differences over basic policy caused President Truman to relieve General __________ of his command of American troops.
Douglas MacArthur
President Eisenhower called his program of being flexible without compromising his basic values "__________" or "progressive moderation."
dynamic conservatism
President Eisenhower's secretary of state who advocated the policies of "massive retaliation" and "brinkmanship."
John Foster Dulles
At the Geneva Conference in 1954, major powers signed an agreement to divide these areas at the seventeenth parallel, and called for reunification elections to be held in 1956
North and South Vietnam
The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine declared that U.S. policy in this region was to use armed force to stop communist aggression there.
the Middle East
In 1948, the United States joined this, ostensibly committing itself to real cooperation with Latin American nations
Organization of American States
This 1940 act made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force.
the Smith Act
This act established a Civil Rights Commission and a Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
In 1948, former vice president Henry Wallace ran against President Truman as the candidate of this party.
Progressive
In 1954, Ho Chi Minh's North Vietnamese Army defeated besieged French forces at this decisive battle.
the Battle of Dien Bien Phu
In 1947, President Truman established this board to check up on government employees, who could be fired if they were found to be members in vaguely defined "subversive" organizations
Loyalty Review Board
In 1961, the CIA-sponsored invasion of this country at the Bay of Pigs was a complete failure and serious embarrassment to President Kennedy.
Cuba
From the time of the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 until his assassination in 1968, he was head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led the nonviolent civil- rights movement in America.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
In the early 1960s, Black Muslims Elijah Muhammad and __________ urged blacks to reject white American society and pursue a policy of black separatism
Malcolm X
This 1964 act outlawed discrimination against blacks and women and banned all formal racial segregation.
the Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Johnson labeled his domestic welfare program that included a "war" on poverty this.
the Great Society
The 1965 Immigration Act did away with the system of admitting immigrants on the basis of this and replaced it with a system based on each immigrant's skills and need for political asylum
national origin
South Vietnamese President who received the backing of the United States government from 1954 until his assassination in 1963.
Ngo Dinh Diem
In this 1964 resolution, Congress gave President Johnson a virtual blank check to wage war in Vietnam.
the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
In 1968, this Minnesota Senator challenged President Johnson for the presidential nomination of the Democratic party.
Eugene McCarthy
The Vietcong's __________ in January-February 1968 caught the United States and South Vietnam by surprise and was a key turning point in the Vietnam War
Tet Offensive
In 1968, then former Alabama Governor __________ ran for the presidency on the conservative American Independent party ticket.
George Wallace Sr.
On March 16, 1968, American troops massacred defenseless villagers in this Vietnamese hamlet.
My Lai
During his presidency, Richard Nixon relied heavily on the judgment of this man, his chief foreign-policy advisor.
Henry Kissinger
Pursuing a policy of __________, President Nixon tried to relax tensions in U.S. relations with both the Soviet Union and China in the early 1970s.
detente
In the 1972 presidential election, President Nixon easily defeated this man, the Democratic nominee.
then Senator George McGovern
The combination of climate, pensions, and technology industries produced tremendous population growth in the so-called __________ states of Florida and the Southwest in the 1950s and 1960s
Sunbelt
This Joseph Heller antiwar novel was enormously popular in the 1960s, especially among college students.
Catch 22
In recent decades, these electronics have advanced industrial automation, revolutionized the collection and storage of information, and speeded the work of millions.
computers
By the mid-1960s, black militants like this SNCC leader generally rejected the support of white civil-rights activists.
Stokely Carmichael
In August 1965, the first and one of the most destructive black ghetto riots of the sixties erupted in this section of Los Angeles.
Watts
According to the Kerner Commission, the basic cause of the riots in black ghettos in the 1960s was this factor that deprived blacks of jobs, decent housing, and hope.
white racism
During World War II and again between 1948 and 1965, federal laws encouraged the importation of temporary farm workers from Mexico called this.
braceros
In the 1960s,this man, the most influential Mexican-American leader, led the drive to organize migrant farm workers.
Cesar Chavez
The launch of this Soviet satellite in 1957 caused Congress to enact the National Defense Education Act.
Sputnik
The first great outburst of student unrest in the 1960s came in the Free Speech movement at this campus of the University of California in the fall of 1964
Berkeley
Author of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, this ,am showed through thousands of private interviews that premarital sex, homosexuality, and marital infidelity were much more common than suspected.
Alfred Kinsey
This feminist author's book, "The Feminine Mystique", (1963) raised the consciousness of millions of women.
Betty Friedan
In this case (1973), the Supreme Court ruled that women had a constitutional right to abortion.
Roe v. Wade
Soviet-American relations took a turn for the worse when Soviet armies invaded __________ in 1979, leading President Carter to cut trade with the Soviets, cancel SALT II arms reduction, and boycott the Moscow Olympics.
Afghanistan
Perhaps President Carter's most important achievement was mediating the Camp David Agreement between Israel and __________.
Egypt
In the late 1970s wages and salaries rose in response to inflation, but taxes went up more rapidly because larger dollar amounts put people in higher income tax levels. This situation is referred to as "__________."
bracket creep
In the summer of 1979, President Carter gave a speech in which he complained of a "moral and spiritual crisis" that had sapped people's energies and undermined civic pride. The press called this Carter's "__________" speech.
malaise
President Gorbachev used two Russian words, __________ and perestroika, to refer to political and economic reforms underway in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s
glasnost
At a summit meeting in __________, President Reagan defended his strategic defense initiative to the extent that he walked out of the conference
Reykjavik Iceland
In 1973 and 1974, the United States operated a successful orbiting space station known as __________.
Skylab
The term "__________"was used in the 1980s to refer to immigrants who entered the United States illegally.
"undocumented aliens"
The __________ virus destroys the body's defenses against infection, making victims susceptible to many diseases.
human immunodifficiency (HIV)
In the 1980s, many profited on risky investment known as __________,which offered unusually high interest rates.
junk bonds