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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
______ wrote the Wealth Against the Commonwealth in 1894 attacking Standard Oil Company
Henry Demarest Lloyd
The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
Thorstein Veblen
How the Other Half Lives (1890)

By whom?
For what?
What did it do?
Jacob A. Riis

New York Sun

Condemned Slums
Financier (1912) The Titan (1914)
Theodore Dreiser
popular muckracking magazines
The term muckrackers given by roosevelt with reference to
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress
1902 "The Shame of the Cities" in McClures

By whom?
What did it say?
Lincoln Steffens

unmasked corrupt alliance between big business and gov't
Ida Tarbell
expose on standard oil
rich guy who told all the secrets of his corrupt business partners, died in poverty (wrote Frenzied Finance in Everybody's)
Thomas W. Lawson
"The Treason of the Senate" (1906)

David G Philips

75 of 90 senators working for big busines
statistics on blacks

percent illiterate
percent in south
1/3 illiterate
90% in south
9 million
Follwing the Color Line (1908)

Ray Stannard Baker's

wrongs and depressing stats for blacks
"The bitter cry of the children" (1906)
John Spargo

child labor
"Poison Squad" regulated medicines
Harvey W. Wiley, chief chemist of dept. of agriculture
Instead of aggressive action, progressives believed...
purify democracy

arouse public conscience instead of mass political change
Progressives pushed for:

1. direct primary election
2. initiative
3. referendum
4. recall
The seventeenth amendment (1913)
direct election of U.S. Senators
city manager system started in....(1901)
Galveston Texas
routed lumber and railroad interests and gave them back to the people; perfected scheme for regulataing public utilities
fighting bob Lafollette
helped break the grip of Southern Pacific Railroad on Cali politics
cali Governor Hiram Johnson
investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust
Charles Evans Hughes (gov of NY)
new female organizations (2) and the two new federal agencies that they worked through
Women's Trade Union League, National Consumers League

Children's Bureau, Women's Bureau
state of Illinoi's first chief factor inspector; leading advocate for factory conditions

took control of the National Consumers League in 1899
Florence Kelly (formerly part of Adam's Hull House)
Muller V. Oregon (1908)
Louis D. Brandeis got the Supreme court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women in the workplace
Lochner v. New York (1905)
10 hour day for bakers
Women's Christian Temperance Union

founded by?
notably it was?
Frances E. Willard

Largest organization of women in the world
Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
prohibition of alcohol
Square deal

by Roosevelt

Three C's:
control of corporations
consumer protection
conservation of natural resources
first initial test to square deal
1902 coal strike in Pennsylvania

result: 10% pay boost, 9 hour working day
Congress created the Department of Commerce and labor created in 1903

included? which....
Bureau of Corporations which was authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce
elkins act of 1903
\aimed at rebates
Hepburn act of 1906
free passes, ICC expanded
Roosevelts first trust bust

Northern Securities (railroad holding company by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill)

roosevelt's real purpose in assaulting trusts

because he thought that trust busting was...
prove that gov't ruled the country, not big business
Taft and Roosevelt fought huge in 1911 because...?
Roosevelt allowed J.P. Morgan to have US steel absorb Tennessee coal and Iron Company, and promised no antitrust reprisals (1907)

Taft breaks up (1911)
book that appalled the public with description of unsanitary food production
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1906)
Two acts resulting from "The Jungle"
Meat Inspection Act of 1906

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
The Desert Land Act of 1877, The Forest Reserve Act of 1891, and The Carey Act of 1894 were...
pre-Roosevelt attempts at conservation
Newlands Act of 1902
by Roosevelt

authorized Washington to collect money from the sale of public lands in the western states and use the money for the development of irrigation projects
Roosevelt Dam in 1911 in...
roosevelt set aside ____ acres of land (___ times as much as last three predecessors put together)
125 million acres

three times as much as last 3 presidents
Nature Oriented Organizations at the time (2)
Sierra Club
Boy Scouts
1913 major battle lost for preservationalists

what happened?
Fed gov't allowed building of

Hetch Hetchy valley

in Yosemite National Park
Panic of 1907

blame put on....for...?
real cause (one of them)?
roosevelt blamed because of unsettling industry with "boat rocking tactics"

one of causes: Roosevelt promised he would not run for reelection
results of Panic of 1907
FISCAL REFORMS because a more elastic means of exchange was needed

Aldrich-Vreeland Act 1908:
authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
Aldrich-Vreeland Act of 1908
authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
Results of Election of 1908
Republican Taft won
Democrat William Jennings Bryan
Socialist Eugene V. Debs (pullman strike hero)
Roosevelt's Contributioons
protected capitalists against popular indignation and socialism

conservation success (biggest achievement

redefined power of presidential office

"Big Stick" of publicity as political tool

square deal

first real internationally expansionative president
Dollar Diplomacy

strengthened American defenses and foreign policy

esp. China's Manchuria
1909 Secretary of State Knox
group of American and foreign bankers buy the Manchurian railroads and turn them over to China, but Japan and Russia rejected
Troubled area under US influence:
Caribbean, especially Nicargua, Cuba, Honduras, Dominican Republic
Taft brought ____ suits against companies
90 suits

twice as much as roosevelt
Standard Oil Dissolved

by who?


violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Congress's "Rule of Reason"

its effects?
only those combinations that 'unreasonably restrained trade" were illegal
much harder to trust-bust
Payne Aldrich Bill 1909
by Taft
increased taxes, even though he promised he wouldn't
Taft's conservationism
Bureau of Mines,
millions of acres of western coal lands
water-power sites protected from private development
Balinger-Pinchot Quarrel 1910
Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger opens up Wyoming, Alaska lands; Chief of the Agriculture Department's Division of Foresty Pincot challenges him

taft allows balinger to fire pinchot
During Taft's Presidency, Roosevelt's New Nationalism speech proclaimed
that the national government should increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses
National Progressive Republican League formed in 1911

initially led by?
taken over by?
La follette

Difference between New Nationalism (Roosevelt) and New Freedom (Wilson)
New Nationalism believed in social-welfare, woman suffrage, consolidation of trusts and labor unions

New Freedom shunned social welfare (depended on strength of economic competition), and wanted to fragment big business through antitrust laws instead of merely regulating it
Wilson won only ___% of vote

41 percent

BullMoose Roosevelt
Republican Taft
Socialist Eugene V. Debs
fate of progressive party after election of 1912?
it died.
wilson ideals:
self-determination for people of other countries

shared jefferson's faith in the masses, if they were well-educated
"triple wall of privilege"


Tariff, Banks, Trusts
Underwood Tariff Bill of 1913

substantially reduced import taxes

first big reduction in a long time
Sixteenth Amendment
graduated income tax

beginning with incomes over $3000
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
most important act between civil war, new deal

Federal Reserve Board (appointed by president) oversaw a national system of twelve regional banks (even though the banks were privately owned, fed reserve board had final authority)

allowed to issue Federal Reserve Notes, backed by commercial paper, such as promissory notes of business people
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
part of wilson's attack on trsts

empowered presidentially appointed commission to investigate industries involved in interstate commerce
Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
further part of Wilson's assault on trusts

-expanded Shrman's Anti-Trust act
-forbade price discrimination,
-interlocking directorates
-conferred long-overdue benefits on labor
Federal Farm loan Act of 1916
made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest

populist idea
Warehouse Act of 1916
authorized loans on the security of staple crops

populist idea
La Follette Seamen's Act of 1915
decent treatment and living wage on American merchant ship

crippled merchant marine because prices rose so much
Workingmen's Compensation Act of 1916
assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability
Adamson Act of 1916
eight hour day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce; paid for overtime
Wilson nominates _____ for supreme court in 1916

notable because?
Louis D. Brandeis

first jew to be nominated to supreme court
Jones Act of 1916
granted to the phillipines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a stable gov't could be established
1917 Wilson purchased...from...
The Virgin Island from Denmark
wilson had to deal with turmoil in...despite his anti-imperialist views

forced to use roosevelt corrolary
1913 Mexico rebellion put _____ in power

wilson's resulting action?
brutal dictator General Victoriano Huerta

wilson refused to officially recognize Huerta's regime

(allowed American weapons to go to Venustanio Carraza , Francisco ("Pancho") Villa
July 1914 arrest of American sailors in mexico

resulted in....
but thankfully....
Wilson seized Mexican Port of Vera Cruz

Argentina, Brazil, Chile offered intervention before an all-out war happened; Huerta's regime collapsed
Wilson supported new president _____

but rival _____ tried to instigate a war between mex and US to put himself in power
Carranza=new president

Pancho Villa tried to instigate war by killing Americans
....was sent to Mexico to break up Pancho Villa's murdering band
General John J. (Black Jack) Pershing
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary
principally France,

(Later Japan, Italy)
two groups of invertebrate deuterostomes include ____ and ____

four key characters of chordates
1. notochord
2. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
3. pharyngeal slits or clefts
4. muscular, post-anal tail
longitudinal, flexible rod located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord

composed of large, fluid-filled cells encased in fairly stiff, fibrous tissue
this characteristic of chordates typically reduces as the animal develops into an adult
____ develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord

hollowness unique to chordates

develops into CNC (brain, spinal chord)
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
_____ are the grooves that separate a series of pouches along the sides of the pharynx

develop into _____ that open to the outside of the body and allow water entering the mouth to exit the body without passing through the entire digestive tract
Pharyngeal Clefts=grooves

Pharyngeal Slits=openings
pharyngeal slits usually function as ________ in invertebrates and ______ in vertebrates (called ___ ____ )
suspension-feeding devices in invertebrate chordates

gas exchange; called gill slits in vertebrates
pharyngeal clefts do not develop into slits in tetrapods, instead, they....
develop into parts of the ear and other structures in the head and neck
deepest branching lineage of chordates
_____ resemble other chordates during larval stage, but loses chordate characteristics once it attaches to a substrate and goes through metamorphosis
during metamorphosis, ____ undergo organ rotation of 90 degrees, nervous system degeneration, and tail and notochord reabsorption
siphons used for feeding in...
larvae lancelets develop...
all four chordate characteristics