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31 Cards in this Set

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William Howe
English general; not a military genius; commanded at Bunker Hill; could have crushed Washington’s forces when they retreated past the Delaware River, but didn’t; also didn’t help Burgoyne when needed and instead helped the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia
Burgoyne
English general; was supposed to go down to Lake Champlain from Canada to capture the Hudson River valley; Howe’s troops in New York could advance up the Hudson River to meet Burgoyne near Albany if needed; surrendered at Saratoga on October 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates.
Cornwallis
assaulted at Yorktown; surrendered his entire force of 7000 men on October 19, 1781 after being cornered by Washington from land and Admiral de Grasse (French) by sea (he blockaded them after beating off the British fleet)
Greene
the “Fighting Quaker”; lost battles but won campaigns by exhausting General Charles Cornwallis; succeeded in clearing most of Georgia and South Carolina of British troops; distinguished himself by his strategy of delay- standing and then retreating
What is the Chornological Order of the following events: Lexington and Concord, First continental congress meets, quebec act, Boston tea party
1. Boston Tea Party
2. Quebec Act
3. First Continental Congress
4. meets, Lexington and Concord
What was the status of American troops at the end of the Revolutionary War?
They were more experienced and better trained. Also many were enshrined and considered heroes in America.
was the American Revolution a minority or majority type of movement?
Minority
What clash caused king George III to declare the colonies in a state of rebellion?
Bunker Hill
Accoriding to Varying Veiwpoints, what ultimately caused the colonists to declare war?
According to Varying Viewpoints, some historians believed that the colonists were extremely suspicious of any attempts to tighten the imperial reins on the colonists. Yet others believe that the colonists were experiencing status problems within the colonies, which led to the Revolution.
what group captured hundred of british troops?
Privateers
What effect did Benedict Arnold's actions have on American troop morale?
The Benedict Arnold incidence severely lower the American troops’ morale, and led them to ask, “Whom can we trust now?”
What did the Treaty of Fort Stanwix result in?
It resulted in a huge tide of westward-moving pioneers, settling farther and farther westward, making the British more vulnerable to attack.
how did George Washington help restore confidence in the American military?
Washington led soldiers to the Chesapeake from the New York area, and beset the British by land. Cornwallis surrendered his entire army force, which ended the Revolution.
What provision of the treaty of Paris (1787) were broken by the colonists
The Loyalists were not to be further persecuted and Congress was to restore confiscated Loyalist’s property. Also, the Americans vowed not to get in the way of the British collection of debts that were long owed.
What did the Northwest Ordinance (1787) establish?
Stated that the Northwest Territory would be spilt up into 3 to 5 states in which slavery was outlawed. Also, the minimum population was 60,000 people for statehood.
What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention (1787) in Philadelphia?
To write the Constitution.
what compromise had to be made in order to get the Constitution retified?
The Virginia Plan (representation in Congress should be based on population) and the New Jersey Plan (equal representation in Congress) were combined to create The Great Compromise. This compromise stated that there would be two parts of the legislature, one, the House of Burgesses, would have representation based on population, and the other, the Senate, would have two delegates from each state resulting in equal representation. Also, the Constitutional Convention agreed that the Electoral College would elect the president, in order to give a more fair chance for smaller states to choose the president. Also, the 3/5ths Compromise stated that slaves counted as 3/5ths of a person when the southern states decided on the number of representatives would be in the House of Burgesses.
Political Contributions of Thomas Jefferson
- Penned the Declaration of Independence

- Helped create and lead the Anti-federalist opposition to the Constitution

- Persuaded Congress to form Bill of Rights

- Protested against Federalist Hamilton

- His political faction led to creation of political party Democrat-Republican

- 3rd President of the United States

- Created Louisiana Purchase deal with French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803

- Instilled agrarian views into America

- Repealed Excise tax, costing government million dollars/year in revenue

- Created unpopular Embargo Act, forbidding foreign trade

-Embargo Act led to economic
stagger and loss of support for Jefferson
Political Contributions of Henry Knox
- Secretary of War under George Washington

- Served under Washington during the Revolution as an able officer

- Dealt with growing unrest in the western frontier
Political Contributions of Alexander Hamilton
- Mastermind of the nation’s economy

- Promoted federalist ideas and backed Britain as a key ally

- Hamilton’s economic plan: Bank of the US, Excise Tax, Funding at Par, Assumption of state debts, Tariffs

- He evolved theory of “loose construction” by invoking the “elastic clause” of the Constitution
what group was favored by Hamiltonian economic policies?
Hamiltonian economic policies mainly favored the rich upper class who lent much money to the government when it was attempting to gain independence. The policies also favored the industrial north and its British allies, promoting a strong, tight, central government that supported industrial business ventures and created a strong economic base for the New England and Middle shipping states.
what group(s) made up the jeffersonian followers?
Jeffersonian followers were called the Anti-federalists, later known as the Democrat-Republican. This group was mainly made up of the poorer masses which typically included the farmers, backcountry men, and isolationists. Jefferson’s group believed in simple agrarian lifestyle with majority state right’s, a weak central government, and a foreign policy that sympathized with France.
What significant political statement was made thorugh the failed attempts by jefforson to have justice Samuel Chase impeached?
The precedent of the Supreme Court having the only power to kick judges in court was the political statement created by Jefferson’s attempt to destroy Samuel Chase. From that attempt onward, a precedent was set: the impeachment clause was never used against Supreme Court judges.
What was jefferson's "foreign policy of coercion," and whom did it favor?
Jefferson’s “foreign policy of coercion” was an idea that strong militaries were not necessary during peace times for fear of a standing dictatorship. Jefferson would use peaceful coercion to win friends (trade, mutual treaties and agreements, etc.) rather than use military as a threat.
What events made Aaron Burr infamous??
- Dropped from cabinet in second Jefferson term

- Joined group of Federalist extremists: plotted secession of New Englan/New York

- Challenged Hamilton to duel and won (political career now dead)

- Allied with General James Wilkinson to attempt separating trans-Mississippi west from eastern portion of U.S.

- Burr arrested and tried but not proven guilty of treason; flees to France to continue Anti-American policies
Why were federalists opposed to the acquisition of Canada?
because it destroyed one of their main sources of trade. (remember that federalists are mostly in New England). Federalist Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island created Hartford Convention to address their grievances against the federal government. It never gained much publicity and eventually led to the downfall of Federalist party.
What groups supported Clay's quest for federally funded roads and canals?
by the nationalist public, a majority of the people. These nationalists were the ones that lived in areas that had poor transportation (the West and New England close to Canada).
Why was the war of 1812 considered to be a poorly fought war?
because of widespread disunity. There was no nationalist sentiment and there were dissenter states (Hartford Convention). The people were divided on the War of 1812. Militarily, the three-pronged attack employed by the U.S. army failed miserably.
What resolutions were made at the Hartford Convention?
- financial assistance from Washington for compensation of lost trade
- proposed amendments for Constitution that required 2/3 Congress vote for an issue concerning embargos, new states, or war
- Abolish three-fifths clause
- Limit president to one term
- prohibit election of two successive presidents from the same state
What occured as a result of the Panic of 1819?
- A rude setback for nationalism

- poorer classes severely strapped

- hurt political and social world

- agitation against imprisonment for debt

- over-speculated land in the West
Why did Spain sell Florida to the US?
because it was already preoccupied with revolutions in Venezuela, Chile, and Argentina. When they removed their troops from Florida to help out at these revolutions, U.S. swept into Florida on false pre-texts. Spain forced to sell Florida to get rid of U.S. threat.