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183 Cards in this Set

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What type of people supported Prohibition?
women, feminists, Christians, but not many immigrants, for whom alcohol was part of culture
When were most canals built?
In the period from the mid-1820s to the Civil War, however, the United States underwent a vast expansion of canal construction, becoming the world's leading nation in both mileage of canals and the volume of tonnage carried on them. In the long run, however, innovations in steam technology and railroad engineering were destined to render many canals the losers in a New competitive age in transport that took shape in the late 1840s and the 1850s.
Pendleton Act (Civil Service Act of 1883)
The act aimed to reform the spoils system by eliminating many political appointments in favor of jobs only awarded to candidates who met predetermined uniform standards of merit. It reestablished a Civil Service Commission to prepare rules for a limited classified civil service, which the president could expand at discretion. Competitive examinations determined the qualifications of applicants, while appointments were apportioned among the states according to population.
Negotiations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union aimed at curtailing the manufacture of strategic nuclear missiles. The first round of negotiations began in 1969 and resulted in a treaty regulating antiballistic missiles and freezing the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. It was signed by Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixon in 1972. A second round of talks (1972 – 79), known as SALT II, addressed the asymmetry between the two sides' strategic forces and ended with an agreement to limit strategic launchers (see MIRV). Signed by Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter, it was never formally ratified by the U.S. Senate, though its terms were observed by both sides. Subsequent negotiations took the name Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START).
On 8 September 1954, the United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan signed the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty in Manila. Sometimes referred to as the Manila Pact, this agreement created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). The Eisenhower administration and especially Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had worked to establish this loose alliance
International military alliance created to defend western Europe against a possible Soviet invasion. A 1948 collective-defense alliance between Britain, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg was recognized as inadequate to deter Soviet aggression, and in 1949 the U.S. and Canada agreed to join their European allies in an enlarged alliance. A centralized administrative structure was set up, and three major commands were established, focused on Europe, the Atlantic, and the English Channel (disbanded in 1994). The admission of West Germany in 1955 led to the Soviet Union's creation of the opposing Warsaw Treaty Organization, or Warsaw Pact.
Specie Circular of 1836
The Specie Circular (Coinage Act) was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for public lands be in gold and silver specie. The Act was a reaction to growing concerns about excessive speculation of land after the Indian Removal, most done with "soft money." Jackson issued this order to protect the settlers who were forced to pay greatly inflated land prices with devalued paper currency. As a result, however, much paper money was instantly devalued. It also moved much of the specie (hard money) to the west to pay for land transactions at a time when eastern banks needed it. Specie was short in the East because the British government restricted specie transfer to the United States, which contributed to the Panic of 1837. This shortage led to a fall in cotton prices, a collateral in most American loans, which required specie. These loans became harder to acquire, cotton became devalued, and the U.S. economy suffered. The Specie Circular only worsened this economic panic.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was enacted in 1890 as a United States federal law. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month. In addition to the $2-4 million dollars that had been required by the Bland-Allison Act of 1878, the US government was now required to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion every month. The law required the Treasury to buy the silver with notes that could be redeemed for either silver or gold. That plan backfired, as people (mostly investors) turned in their silver Treasury notes for gold dollars, thus depleting the government's gold reserves. After the Panic of 1893 broke, President Grover Cleveland oversaw the repeal of the Act in 1893 to prevent the depletion of the country's gold reserves.
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
created, for the first time, a permanent national central bank. The product of this act, the Federal Reserve System, was in some ways an awkward compromise among all sides of the national debate,
Commodity Dollar in 1933
Acquisition of Pago Pago
part of Samoa
De Lome Letter
The De Lôme Letter, which set off an 1898 diplomatic incident, was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Minister with the Portfolio of Cuban Affairs at the Spanish Embassy in Washington, D.C. The letter, which was intended to be private, was sent to his friend, Don Jose Canelejas, a Spanish official in Havana and was stolen from the Post Office in Havana and released by Cuban revolutionists to United States newspapers. The minister wrote disparagingly of US President William McKinley "... McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party." This event anticipated the Spanish-American War by firing up an otherwise inactive President McKinley and helped foment public sentiment in favor of the Cuban Junta and against the Spanish, and is seen as one of the principal causes of the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Jay's Treaty
This pact between the United States and Great Britain was negotiated in London by Chief Justice John Jay in 1794. Hoping to ease tensions caused by British seizures of American ships and restrictions on trade with the British West Indies, President George Washington sent Jay to England to seek the withdrawal of British troops from American territory in the West, the payment of reparations to American shippers, compensation for slaves abducted during the Revolution, and the right to trade freely with the British West Indies. Jay proved to be a poor negotiator. Great Britain agreed to evacuate the western posts and pay reparations to American merchants. But though it opened the West Indies to American vessels, it did so under extremely restrictive terms. More important, Jay agreed to a clause giving up the right of neutral ships to trade freely with belligerents in wartime. He also accepted the British Rule of 1756, which held that in times of war, neutrals could not trade with ports closed to them in peacetime by mercantilistic regulations. Moreover, the treaty committed the United States to pay outstanding prerevolutionary debts to British merchants--although that issue was still being contested in American courts. Despite widespread feeling that the treaty was humiliating to the United States, President Washington persuaded the Senate to ratify it on the ground that further conflict with England was not in the public interest.
Homestead Act
An act passed by Congress in 1862 promising ownership of a 160-acre tract of public land to a citizen or head of a family who had resided on and cultivated the land for five years after the initial claim.
Land Act of 1796
Public Land Act of 1796 authorized Federal land sales to the public in minimum 640-acre plots at $2 per acre of credit
Dollar Diplomacy
U.S. foreign policy created by Pres. William H. Taft to ensure financial stability in a region in exchange for favourable treatment of U.S. commercial interests.The policy grew out of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt's peaceful intervention in the Dominican Republic, where U.S. loans had been exchanged for the right to choose the head of customs (the country's major revenue source). Taft's secretary of state, Philander Knox carried out Dollar Diplomacy in Central America (1909) and China (1910). Pres. Woodrow Wilson repudiated the policy in 1913. The term has become a disparaging reference to the manipulation of foreign affairs for economic ends.
Pan-American Union
Organization formed in 1890 to promote cooperation among the countries of Latin America and the U.S. It was established (as the International Union of American Republics) at the first Pan-American conference, which was called by U.S. secretary of state James Blaine in order to reach agreements on various common commercial and juridical problems among the countries of the Americas. In 1948 it was reconstituted as the Organization of American States.
Monroe Doctrine
U.S. foreign-policy statement first enunciated by Pres. James Monroe on Dec. 2, 1823, declaring the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European colonization. Concerned that the European powers would attempt to restore Spain's former colonies, he declared, inter alia, that any attempt by a European power to control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as a hostile act against the U.S. It was reiterated in 1845 and 1848 by Pres. James K. Polk to discourage Spain and Britain from establishing footholds in Oregon, California, or on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. In 1865 the U.S. massed troops on the Rio Grande to back up demands that France withdraw from Mexico. In 1904 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary, stating that in the event of flagrant wrongdoing by a Latin American state, the U.S. had the right to intervene in its internal affairs. As the U.S. became a world power, the Monroe Doctrine came to define the Western Hemisphere as a U.S. sphere of influence.
Roosevelt Corollary
This was Theodore Roosevelt's "amendment" to the Monroe Doctrine. In 1904, the government of the Dominican Republic was bankrupt, and Roosevelt feared that foreign nations, especially Germany, might intervene forcibly to collect their debts. To keep other powers out and ensure financial solvency, Roosevelt issued his corollary: "Chronic wrongdoing ... may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation," he announced in his annual message to Congress in December 1904, "and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power." Roosevelt tied his policy to the Monroe Doctrine to win public acceptance.
New Nationalism
American political policy espoused by Theodore Roosevelt. Influenced by Herbert Croly's The Promise of American Life (1910), Roosevelt used the phrase in a speech in which he tried to reconcile the liberal and conservative wings of the Republican Party. New Nationalism called for federal intervention to promote social justice and the economic welfare of the underprivileged. In 1912, as the presidential candidate of the Progressive Party, Roosevelt ran unsuccessfully on a platform based on the precepts of New Nationalism.
New Freedom
The New Freedom was the term used by Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 Presidential campaign to describe his domestic program. Wilson believed that “private monopoly is indefensible and intolerable” and that national government should break up such large concentrations of corporate wealth. This view distinguished him clearly from his two opponents. Wilson claimed that President William Howard Taft stood for the interests of big business and that ex-President Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism program to regulate big business would prove unworkable.
Henry Hobson Richardson
(1838–86) Architect in romaneque styles and others
Frank Lloyd Wright
Often considered the greatest U.S. architect of all time, his greatest legacy is "organic architecture," or the idea that buildings harmonize both with their inhabitants and with their environment.
Electric lighting invented in _
Booth Tarkington
(1869–1946), playwright
Frank Norris
novelist and short-story writer, one of the first to embrace naturalism (realism)
Albany Plan
Because of fear of Indian attacks, It provided for a voluntary union of the colonies with "one general government," each colony to retain its own separate existence and government. (1754)
Peter Zenger
John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), American printer, was selected to print a weekly newspaper by a faction of influential men opposed to a governor of New York. Zenger was charged with libel and acquitted. The case has forever associated his name with the cause of freedom of speech and of the press in America.
Year of Seneca Falls Convention
Neal S. Dow
Dow, Neal, 1804–97, American prohibitionist, b. Portland, Maine. He helped organize the Maine Temperance Union in 1838 and prepared (1851) the famous “Maine Law,” which superseded the less rigid prohibition legislation of 1846. As mayor of Portland (1851–59), Dow succeeded with difficulty in making his law operative in that city. He lectured on prohibition throughout the United States, and in 1857 he visited England. He was the Prohibition party's candidate for President in 1880.
Henry Barnard
worked with improving education around 1845
Elizabeth Peabody
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-1894), an American educator, author, and prominent member of the New England intellectual community, promoted the new kindergarten movement in the United States.
Mary Lyon
Mary Lyon (1797-1849) was the founder of Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and a pioneer in women's education.
McCulloch v. Maryland
It settled the meaning of the Necessary and Proper Clause of the United States Constitution and determined the distribution of powers between the federal government and the states. The specific issues involved were Congress's power to incorporate the Second Bank of the United States and the right of a state to tax an instrument of the federal government.
Schecter v. US
Sick Chicken case that established the principle that in domestic affairs Congress may not delegate broad legislative powers to the President without also outlining clear standards to guide the President in employing these powers.
Plessy v. Ferguson
The “separate but equal” doctrine established by the Court served to justify segregation in many states for the next half century.
Munn v. Illinois
Munn v. Illinois was the first of a famous series of cases known as the Granger Cases. These cases dealt with issues resulting from the rapid growth of manufacturing and transportation companies that began after the Civil War ended in 1865.The Court's decision established the power of state government to regulate businesses other than public utilities. Today, state legislatures exercise tremendous regulatory powers over such matters as working conditions, transportation of goods and people, and manufacturing of products for sale to the public. The constitutional basis for much of this activity rests directly on the Court's decision in Munn v. Illinois.
Muller v. Oregon
Curt Muller, a Portland, Oregon, laundry owner, was charged with violating an Oregon law that set a maximum 10-hour workday for women working in laundries. Louis D. Brandeis, a brilliant lawyer who later became a distinguished Supreme Court justice, argued the case for Oregon. Brandeis took a startling new approach. He presented sociological, medical, and statistical information to show that long hours of hard labor had a harmful effect upon women's health. He claimed the Court must consider whether the Oregon law was a reasonable attempt to protect public health and safety. A state law might be allowed to interfere with the 14th Amendment's presumed guarantee of liberty of contract if it could be justified as protecting public health against real dangers. The Court accepted Brandeis's argument, ruling unanimously to uphold Oregon's law. The factual evidence Brandeis supplied proved convincing. The Court ruled that longer working hours might harm women's ability to bear children. Thus, the state's limitation of those hours was a justified interference with liberty of contract and property and within the state's regulatory power.
Date of sit-ins?
Date of Brown vs. Board of Education?
Date of assasination of Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Date of bus boycott in Montgomery?
Date of 24th amendment?
Forbids states and the federal government to deny or abridge the right of a citizen of the United States to vote in a federal election because of failure to pay a poll tax or other assessment.Ratified 1964
Pure Food and Drug Laws
Amid a storm of public indignation, a Pure Food and Drug Act was passed on June 30, 1906. The act forbade foreign and interstate commerce in adulterated or fraudulently labeled food and drugs. Products could now be seized and condemned, and offending persons could be fined and jailed. The first of a series of consumer protection laws passed in the twentieth century, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was a triumph of progressive reform.
Adamson Act
Adamson Act, enacted on 3 September 1916 at President Woodrow Wilson's behest in response to a pending strike by the major brotherhoods of railway workers. It established an eight-hour day for interstate railway workers and time and a half for overtime.
Election of Senators
17th amendment, ratified in 1913
Peace of Paris of 1763
(1763) Treaty concluding the Seven Years' War (including the French and Indian War). It was signed by Britain and Hanover on one side and France and Spain on the other. France renounced to Britain the mainland of North America east of the Mississippi, its conquests in India since 1749, and four West Indian islands. Britain restored to France four other West Indian islands and the West African colony of Gorée (Senegal). In return for recovering Havana and Manila, Spain ceded Florida to Britain and received Louisiana from the French.
Continental Congress
Body of delegates that acted for the American colonies and states during and after the American Revolution.The First Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia in September 1774, was called by the colonial Committees of Correspondence. The delegates adopted a declaration of personal rights, denounced taxation without representation, petitioned the British crown for a redress of grievances, and called for a boycott of British goods. The Second Continental Congress, meeting in May 1775, appointed George Washington commander in chief of the army. It later approved the Declaration of Independence (1776) and prepared the Articles of Confederation (1781), which granted certain powers to the Congress.
Panic of 1893 and other economic panics
The Panic of 1893 was a serious decline in the economy of the United States that began in 1893 and was precipitated in part by a run on the gold supply. The Panic was the worst economic crisis to hit the nation in its history to that point. Caused by Sherman Silver Purchase Act
triangular trade
Rum and goods to Africa, slaves to west indies, sugar and raw materials to New England
How did the growth of national states in Western Europe affect exploration?
It increased competition for wealth and territory
Date of the defeat of Spanish Armada?
Date Jamestown, Virginia founded
Jeffrey Amherst
Appointed Governor‐general of British North America in 1761, Amherst inherited a tense relationship with the Indians of the Ohio Region, then aggravated matters by cutting off diplomatic gifts to the western tribes, forbidding alcohol sales, and altering the terms of trade. The western Indians rebelled in 1763, and Amherst was recalled to Britain.
Edward Braddock
Edward Braddock (1695-1755) was commander in chief of the British forces in North America during the French and Indian War of the 18th century.
John Colton
Thomas Fairfax
Thomas Hutchison
Hutchinson, Thomas (1711-1780) Governor of Massachusetts:
Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather (1663-1728), Puritan clergyman, historian, and pioneering student of science, was an indefatigable man of letters. Of the third generation of a New England founding family, he is popularly associated with the Salem witchcraft trials.
Aztec leader at the time of the Spanish conquest (1519)
King Phillip
Metacom (1640-1676) was a Native American chief (sachem) whose tribe, the Wampanoags, waged the most devastating war against the Engish in early American history.
Mary White Rowlandson
When Indians razed the settlement in 1676, she was captured and held hostage for 11 weeks. Ransomed, she moved to Connecticut with her husband and two surviving children. Her narrative of captivity, titled The Soveraignty & Goodness of God, Together with the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed; Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson and published in 1682, became popular in the colonies and in London.
William Shirley
British colonial administrator who was governor of Massachusetts (1741–1749 and 1753–1756) and commanded British forces in the French and Indian War.
Miles Standish
Myles Standish (ca. 1584-1656), a professional English soldier hired by the Pilgrims to direct their military affairs, gave great service to New Plymouth in America and won personal glory.
John Witherspoon
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and from 1776 to 1782 a leading member of the Continental Congress.
Order of acts and taxes on colonists
Navigation acts, Molasses Act (1733), Sugar (Revenue) Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), Townshend Acts (1767), Currency Act (1764), Declaratory Act (1766), Tea Act (1773), Intolerable Acts (1774)
Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris (1752-1816), American statesman and diplomat, was one of the important authors of the U.S. Constitution.
Robert Morris
An American merchant, financial expert, land speculator, and banker, Robert Morris (1734-1806) performed a valuable service for the new republic as superintendent of finance for the Continental Congress.
George Mason
The American statesman George Mason (1725-1792) wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights and persistently advocated safeguarding the rights of individuals during the formative years of the republic.
Samuel Adams
The colonial leader Samuel Adams (1722-1803) helped prepare the ground for the American Revolution by inflammatory newspaper articles and shrewd organizational activities.
Ethan Allen
An American Revolutionary War soldier and Vermont leader, Ethan Allen (1738-1789) achieved a place in history by capturing Fort Ticonderoga in 1775 with the Green Mountain Boys.
Crispus Attucks
Crispus Attucks is known to history as the first American to die in the colonists' fight for independence from Britain. In boston Massacre
General Edward Braddock
Edward Braddock (1695-1755) was commander in chief of the British forces in North America during the French and Indian War of the 18th century.
John Singleton Copley
The portraits of the American painter John Singleton Copley (1738-1815), outstanding for their realism and psychological penetration, are the finest of the colonial period. In England from 1775, he executed historical paintings as well as portraits.
Joseph Galloway
Joseph Galloway (ca. 1731-1803), colonial American politician and lawyer, became a prominent loyalist at the outbreak of the American Revolution.
Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814), American patriot and statesman, signed the Declaration of Independence and was vice president under James Madison.
Nathan Hale
A captain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, Nathan Hale famously announced "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country" just before being executed by the British for being a spy.
Sir William Howe
William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe (1729-1814), was British army commander-in-chief in America during the early years of the Revolution.
Sire William Johnson
In 1746 he was appointed colonel of the Iroquois Confederacy. In the French and Indian War he defeated French forces at Lake George, N.Y. (1755), and captured Fort Niagara (1759). He was appointed superintendent of the Six Iroquois Nations (1756 – 74), helped subdue the Indian uprising called Pontiac's War (1763 – 64), and negotiated the first Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768).
John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones (1747-1792), American Revolutionary War officer, was a great fighting sailor and a national hero.
Rufus King
King was one of the nation's prominent leaders and a chief spokesman for ratification of the Constitution. And a solid federalist
John Lansing
In 1787 he was a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention but withdrew when that body began to draft a new constitution instead of revising the Articles of Confederation as it had been empowered to do. He was one of the leaders of the opposition in New York to the Constitution.
Ann Lee
The founder of the American Shaker movement
Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), American patriot and statesman, led early resistance in Virginia to British rule. He introduced into the Continental Congress the resolution declaring American independence.
James Otis
His brilliant defense of American colonial rights at the outset of the struggle between England and its colonies marked James Otis, Jr. (1725-1783), a leading spokesman for the Boston patriots prior to the American Revolution.
William Paterson
William Paterson (1745-1806) was a leading advocate of the interests of the small states at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787. As a justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he sought to strengthen the Federal government.
Charles C. Pinckney
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1745-1825), American statesman, was a patriot leader and an emissary to France. He was twice the Federalist nominee for president.
William Pitt
(Father) English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
Edmund Randolph
In 1781 Randolph began serving as a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman (1721-1793), American patriot, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a formidable voice at the Constitutional Convention.
John Trumbull
John Trumbull (1756-1843) was the first American painter to produce a series of history paintings; they depict scenes of the Revolutionary War.
Anthony Wayne
The American soldier Anthony Wayne (1745-1796) became a hero during the American Revolution and in his later campaigns against the Indians.
James Wilson
James Wilson (1742-1798) was a patriot leader during the American Revolution and an influential delegate at the Federal Convention of 1787. He served on the first U.S. Supreme Court.
Hartford Convention and federalists losing power
News of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814, which ended the war, discredited the nascent separatist movement at the convention and weakened Federalist influence.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The first federal Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 to establish the structure of the federal court system under the Supreme Court of the United States.
Marbury v. Madison
1803, Judicial Review
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819, contracts and state law
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824, Interstate commerce
Embargo of 1807
Legislation by the U.S. Congress in December 1807 that closed U.S. ports to all exports and restricted imports from Britain. The act was Pres. Thomas Jefferson's response to British and French interference with neutral U.S. merchant ships during the Napoleonic Wars. The embargo had little effect in Europe, but it imposed an unpopular restriction on New England merchants and exporters (see Hartford Convention). Legislation passed in 1809 lifted the embargo, but continued British interference with U.S. shipping led to the War of 1812.
British Orders in council
The Orders in Council of 1807 were a specific use of an order of the British Privy Council, made under the Royal prerogative, during the Napoleonic Wars. They had the effect of authorizing the Royal Navy to blockade the seaports of France and her European allies.
Non-intercourse act of 1809
In the last days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States due to a lack of markets for its goods.
Treaty of Ghent
The Treaty of Ghent, ratified by the United States on 17 February 1815, marked the official end of the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain.
War of 1812
The War of 1812 is often referred to as the United States's second war of independence because, like the Revolutionary War, it was fought against Great Britain. The Conflict resulted from the clash between American nationalism and the war Britain and its allies were waging against the empire of Napoleonic France. Many Americans believed that England sought to humiliate the United States, limit its growth, and perhaps even impose a quasi‐colonial status upon its former colonies
Aaron Burr
After fighting in the war for American independence, Aaron Burr took up law and politics in New York. He stood for the presidency in 1800, but lost to Thomas Jefferson when the election was decided by the House of Representatives. The way things worked in those days, Burr served as Jefferson's vice president. In 1804 Burr challenged longtime political rival Alexander Hamilton to a duel and fatally shot him. After his term he ventured west and tried to establish a new republic, and was indicted for treason in 1807. He was acquitted, roamed around Europe for a few years, then returned to New York to practice law.
Samuel Chase
Samuel Chase (1741-1811), American politician and member of the early U.S. Supreme Court, was the most controversial of the founders of the American Republic.
William Clark
George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) was an American Revolutionary War soldier. His capture of British posts on the far frontier was of considerable importance, though the idea that Clark "won the Northwest" is an oft-repeated exaggeration.
Albert Gallatin
Swiss-born Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) was U.S. secretary of the Treasury under Jefferson, as well as a diplomat, banker, and ethnographer.
Citizen Genet
a French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution. The Citizen Genêt affair began in 1793 when he was dispatched to the United States to promote American support for France's wars with Spain and Britain. However, Genêt's goals in South Carolina were to recruit and arm American privateers which would join French expeditions against the British. His actions had endangered American neutrality in the war between France and Britain
Washington Irving
Wrote the Sketch Book in 1820, which had the Legend of Sleep Hollow and Rip van Winkle
Henry Knox
Washingon's Secretary of War
Benjamin H. Latrobe
Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764-1820), English-born American architect, was the first professionallytrained architect to practice in the United States. He worked in a variety of styles.
Meriwether Lewis
Co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Charles Wilson Peale
Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), American painter and scientist, was a solid and sometimes strikingly original painter, as well as an inventor and a museum founder.
John Randolph
John Randolph (1773-1833), half-mad, half-genius American statesman, foreshadowed John C. Calhoun, who developed Randolph's states'-rights premises into a political philosophy.
Susanna Rowson
Rowson was the author of the novel Charlotte Temple - the biggest bestseller in American literature until Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was published in 1852.
Haym Salomon
Philadelphia broker Haym Salomon (1740-1785) played a vital role in ensuring that the American colonies' fight to win independence from the British crown continued. During the 1770s, he brokered a number of large financial transactions that kept American soldiers clothed, fed, and armed. It is thought that this Jewish emigrant contributed much of his own assets to the war for independence because he died deeply in debt.
Winfield Scott
The American Winfield Scott (1786-1866) was the leading general of the Mexican War and a superb tactician. He was the Whig nominee for president in 1852.
A chieftan of the Shawnee tribe in what is now the Ohio region, Tecumseh worked to unite other Indian tribes to oppose white expansion into the west in the early 1800s. That dream was crippled when U.S. troops (under future president William Henry Harrison) defeated warriors led by Tecumseh's brother Tenskwatawa (known as The Prophet) at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe. Tecumseh was killed while fighting on the British side at the Battle of Thames (near what is now Detroit) during the War of 1812.
Mercy Warren
The American writer Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814), the first significant woman historian, wrote an eyewitness account of the American Revolution.
Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster (1782-1852), a notable orator and leading constitutional lawyer, was a major congressional spokesman for the Northern Whigs during his 20 years in the U.S. Senate.
Eli Whitney
Inventor of the cotton gin
English Prime Ministers and Significance
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Decisive victory of U.S. Gen. Anthony Wayne over the northwestern Indian Confederation, securing white settlement of former Indian territory, mainly in Ohio. Wayne led more than 1,000 soldiers to confront the 2,000 Indians, who had been promised British support and who had gathered behind a protective tangle of fallen trees along the Maumee River (near modern Toledo). The Indians, abandoned by the British, fled in disarray. A treaty in 1795 ceded Indian lands to the U.S. and ended British influence in the area.
Napoleon and his war
He led his armies to victory after victory, and by 1807 he ruled territory that stretched from Portugal to Italy and north to the river Elbe. But his attempts to conquer the rest of Europe failed; a defeat in Moscow in 1812 nearly destroyed his empire, and his 1815 loss to the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo finished the job. He was sent into exile on the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
Nathaniel Macon
a leading Anti-Federalist.
Why did the Carolinas split?
North had overflow from Virginia, South had people from Barbados?
Date of Cotton Gin
Which colonies were most ethnically diverse?
The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen original colonies because of the influence of their English, Dutch, French and German origins.
Worcester v. Georgia
Chief Justice John Marshall decided against Georgia. He wrote that the Cherokee and other “Indian nations” were “distinct, independent political communities, retaining their original natural rights.”
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Federal legislation passed in 1890 prohibiting "monopolies or attempts to monopolize" and "contracts, combinations, or conspiracies in restraint of trade" in interstate and foreign commerce. The major purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act was to prohibit monopolies and sustain competition so as to protect companies from each other and to protect consumers from unfair business practices. The act was supplemented by the clayton antitrust act in 1914. Both acts are enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Attorney General's office.
Elkins Act
With this 1903 act Congress sought to strengthen the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad freight rates. The act required railroads to hold to their published rates and forbade rate cutting and rebates. Railroads favored the act, because it prevented loss of revenue. The Elkins Act also supplemented the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by providing more specific methods of procedure and penalties for nonobservance of its provisions. The law provided for prosecution and punishment of railroad corporations, as well as their agents and officers, for giving or receiving rebates and made it a misdemeanor to deviate from published rates.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 federal consumer protection legislation that prohibits certain monopolistic practices and other impediments to free market competition, including price discrimination, mergers that may lessen competition, tying agreements and exclusive dealings. The Clayton Act also holds corporate officials personally liable for damages resulting from activities in violation of the Act's rulings. The Clayton Act was designed to be more effective in preventing threats or potential threats to competition than the 1890 sherman antitrust act. The Sherman Act does not come into play until after a violation is committed and has impeded competition. The Clayton Act is enforced by the federal trade commission in conjunction with the Department of Justice.
Big Four of WWI
Clemenceau (France), Wilson (America), George (Britain) and Orlando (Italy)
18th amendment
Prohibition, 1918
What was different about the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Did not specify location?
Federal Securities Act and New Deal
A federal piece of legislation enacted as a result of the market crash of 1929. The legislation had two main goals: (1) to ensure more transparency in financial statements so investors can make informed decisions about investments, and (2) to establish laws against misrepresentation and fraudulent activities in the securities markets.
Federal Trade Commission Act
The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 established the Federal Trade Commission, a bipartisan body of five members appointed by the President of the United States for seven year terms. This Commission was authorized to issue Cease and Desist orders to large corporations to curb unfair trade practices. The agency was created during the presidency of Woodrow Wilson and was part of the Progressive Era reforms.
Detroit and the British occupation
It surrendered to the British during the French and Indian War, then came under U.S. control in 1796.
Independent Treasury
The Independent Treasury Act, passed in 1840, removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks. The act was proposed by President Martin Van Buren in 1837, partly in response to the fact that public funds had been lost when many state banks failed during the panic of 1837.
Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868), American congressman, was the leading Radical Republican in the Civil War era.
Charles Sumner
The anti-slavery guy who was caned in the senate in 1855
Edwin M. Stanton
Edwin McMasters Stanton (1814-1869), American lawyer, was a member of both James Buchanan's and Abraham Lincoln's Cabinets (Lincoln's Secretary of War).
Where was the Whiskey Rebellion?
Thomas Hooker
founder of Connecticut
Credit Mobilier
The Crédit Mobilier scandal of 1872-1873 damaged the careers of several Gilded Age politicians. Major stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad formed a company, the Crédit Mobilier of America, and gave it contracts to build the railroad. They sold or gave shares in this construction to influential congressmen. During Grant's Presidency
Whiskey Ring
(1875) Group of U.S. whiskey distillers who defrauded the government of taxes. The ring operated mainly in St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Chicago and kept liquor taxes after bribing Internal Revenue officials in Washington, D.C. A secret investigation by the U.S. Treasury Department resulted in 238 indictments and 110 convictions. While not involved, Pres. Ulysses S. Grant was tarnished by the scandal;
Teapot Dome
A former U.S. Navy oil reserve in east-central Wyoming north of Casper. Secretly leased to Harry F. Sinclair's oil company by Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall in 1921, it became a symbol of the governmental scandals of the Harding administration.
popular name for a failed 1970s Arkansas real estate venture by the Whitewater Development Corp., in which Governor (later President) Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, were partners; the name is also used for the political ramifications of this scheme.
Samoa acquisition
The eastern islands were annexed by the United States in 1899 as American Samoa,
Earl Warren
The Warren Court ruled against segregated public schools, ensured the rights of suspected criminals and determined a constitutional "right of privacy." Some people celebrate the Warren Court for expanding rights and liberties, others condemn its "judicial activism" and accuse it of overreaching.
Eugene O'Neill
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill was one of the most acclaimed playwrights of the 20th century. A four-time Pulitzer Prize winner,
Sinclair Lewis
Although Harry Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) was the most celebrated American literary figure of the 1920s, his popular, mildly satirical novels today are valued mainly for their sociohistorical relevance.
Old/New Immigrants
Old = Ireland, England, Germany New= Italty, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
Jacksonian democracy
Expanded suffrage (include all white men of legal age), Manifest Destiny, Patronage (spoils system), Strict construction of the Constitution, Laissez-faire economics (No national banks)
Frances Perkins
FDR secretary of labor, 1st woman appointed to cabinet position in US
Oveta Culp Hobby
leader of women's branch of navy
National Labor Union
started 1866, collapsed in 1870's due to depression
Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote An American Scholar, 1837
log rolling
The exchanging of political favors, especially the trading of influence or votes among legislators to achieve passage of projects that are of interest to one another.
The use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speechmaking, for the purpose of delaying legislative action.
results of invention of barbed wire and date
1870's, By 1890, the use of barbed wire had transformed the open ranges of the American West and Southwest into fenced pastureland.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Federal agency created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 to insure that the public receives fair and reasonable rates and services from carriers and transportation service firms involved in interstate commerce.
Tom Wolfe
wrote Bonfire of the Vanities
Jack Kerouac
On the Road
Federal Reserve System
Banking system started in 1913 with the Federal Reserve Act
Status of colonies in 1763
All royal or proprietory
Andrew Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth
the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Horatio Alger's Rags to Riches
Horatio Alger, Jr. (January 13, 1832–July 18, 1899) was a 19th-century American author whose works have been described as rags to riches stories,
Walter Rauschenbush's Social Gospel
Religious response to the problems created by industrialization and urbanization in the late 19th century; supported child labor laws, civil service reform, and control of the trusts
William Graham Sumner's social darwinism
Social Darwinists like Sumner argued that social existence was a competitive struggle among individuals possessing different natural capacities and traits. Overall, those with better traits succeeded, becoming wealthy and powerful, while those lacking in inner discipline or intelligence sank into poverty. Thus the very conditions that reformers decried were, to Sumner, indications that society was functioning as it should.
Vesey Conspiracy
In 1822 Denmark Vesey was accused of being the leader of a secret plot to rebel against whites, a plot that supposedly involved 9,000 slaves and more than two years of preparation. The alleged plan was for the slaves to murder as many whites as they could, then set sail for Africa or Haiti.
Tet offensive
The attacks by Communist forces inside South Vietnam's major cities and towns that began around the Vietnamese New Year (“Tet”) of 1 February 1968 were the peak of an offensive that took place over a period of several months during the Vietnam War.
Why is the election of 1840 the first modern election?
both parties campaigned among all eligible voters
NAACP founding and beliefs
It was founded in 1909 to secure political, educational, social, and economic equality for African Americans;
Treatment of Native Americans over time
Alfred E. Smith and anti-Catholic sentiment
Governor of New York Smith was the first Roman Catholic to be nominated for the US presidency by a major political party (1928)
Presidency of Truman
On April 12, 1945 Roosevelt died and Truman became the 33rd president. In 1945 he made the decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan, finally ending the war. Truman steered the U.S. through the post-war period with colorful, no-nonsense harangues that have since grown legendary.
The Populists, an alliance of farmers and some urban workers (many affiliated with the Knights of Labor), advocated government ownership and operation of the railroads, telephone and telegraph industries, and graduated income tax, postal savings banks, secret ballot elections, direct election of senators, and silver coinage.
Good Neighbor Policy
A United States foreign policy doctrine, adopted by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, designed to improve relations with Latin America. A reaction to the exploitative dollar diplomacy of the early 1900s, the Good Neighbor policy encouraged interaction between the United States and Latin America as equals. In the post-World War II era, however, the United States has often reverted to dollar diplomacy and gunboat diplomacy to impose its will on the countries of Latin America.
Charles Edward Russell
produced a series of articles exposing the greed and corruption of the Beef Trust.
Samuel Hopkins Adams
demonstrated that patent medicines were often pernicious compounds of alcohol and other drugs.
(1834 – 54) U.S. political party. Organized by opponents of Pres. Andrew Jackson, whom they called "King Andrew," the party took its name from the British antimonarchist party. The U.S. Whigs favoured a program of national development. Led by Henry Clay