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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Captured in one long poem the exuberant and optimistic spirit of popular American democracy
Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass
Inspired a widespread spirit or evangelical reform in many areas of American life
The Second Great Awakening
Inspired later practitioners of nonviolence like Gandhi and King
Henry David Thoreau's theory of "civil disobedience"
The experience of frontier life was especially difficult for
Women
p. 297
Two major sources of European immigration to America in the 1840s and 1850s were
Germany and Ireland
p. 300
As late as 1850, over one-half of the American population was
Under the age of 30
P. 297
The primary economic activity in the Rocky Mountain West before the Civil War was
Fur-trapping
p. 298
Americans came to look on their spectacular western wilderness areas especially as
One of their distinctive, defining attributes as a new nation
p. 299
The American painter who developed the idea for a national park system was (Yellow Park in 1872)
George Catlin
p. 299
One consequence of the influx of new immigrants was
An upsurge of anti-Catholicism
p. 306
Semisecret Irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding Irish immigrants in America
The Ancient Order of Hibernians
p. 302
Liberal German refugees who fled failed democratic revolutions of 1848, and came to America
German Forty Eighters
p. 303
Americans who protested and sometimes rioted against Roman Catholic immigrants
American "nativists"
p. 303
Industrialization was at first slow to arrive in America because
There was a shortage of labor, capital, and consumers
p. 306
The transformation of manufacturing that began in Britain about 1750
Industrial Revolution
p. 307
The first industry to be shaped by the new factory system of manufacturing was
Textiles
p. 307
"Father of the Factory System" in America. Immigrant mechanic who started American industrialization by setting up his cotton-spinning factory in 1791
Samuel Slater
p. 310
Yankee mechanical genius who revolutionized cotton production and created the system of interchangable parts
Eli Whitney
p. 310
Radical, secret Irish labor union of the 1860s and 1870s
Molly Maguires
p. 302
Whitney's invention that enhanced cotton production and gave new life to black slavery
Cotton Gin
p. 310
Principle that permitted individual investors to risk no more capital in a business venture than their own share of a corporation's stock
Limited Liability
p. 312
Inventor of a machine that revolutionized the ready-made clothing industry. (Perfected by Isaac Singer)
Elias Howe
p. 312
Passed in New York (1848); businessmen could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature
Laws of "free incorporation"
p. 312
Painter turned inventor who developed the first reliable system for instant communication across distance
Samuel F.B. Morse
p. 312
Pioneering Masshachusetts Supreme Court decision that declared labor unions legal
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
p. 314
Wages for most American workers rose in the early nineteenth century, except for the most exploited workers like
Women and Children
p. 313, 315
A major change affecting the American family in the early nineteenth century was
A decline in the average number of children per household
p. 316
Morse's invention that provided instant communication across distance
Telegraph
p. 312
Common source of early factory labor, often underpaid, whipped and brutally beaten
Children
p. 313
Working people's organizations, often considered illegal under early American law
Labor Unions
p. 314
McCormick's invention that vastly increased the productivity of the American grain farmer
Mechanical mower-reaper
p. 317
Inventor of the mechanical reaper that transformed grain growing into a business
Cyrus McCormick
p. 317
Produced a steel plow that broke virgin soil.
John Deere
p. 317
The only major highway constructed by the federal government before the Civil War
Cumberland Road
p. 318
Fulton's invention that made river transporation a two-way affair
Steam engine
p. 319
Developer of a "folly" that made rivers two-way streams of transportation
Robert Fulton
p. 319
The first major improvements in the American transportation system were
Steamboats and highways
p. 318
"Clinton's Big Ditch" that transformed transportation and economic life from New York City across the Great Lakes of Chicago
Erie Canal
p. 320
New York governor who built the Erie Canal
DeWitt Clinton
p. 320
Wealthy New York manufacturer who laid the first transatlantic cable in 1858
Cyrus Field
p. 325
Beautiful but short-lived American ships, replaced by British "tramp steamers"
Clippers
p. 325
A major new technological developement that linked America more closely to Europe was
The transatlantic cable
p. 325
One effect of industrialization was
A rise in the gap betweeen rich and poor
p. 323
The new regional "division of labor" created by improved transportation meant that
The South specialized in cotton, the West in grain and livestock, and the East in manufacturing
p. 322
Cause: The open, rough-and-tumble society of the American West
Effect: Made Americans strongly individualistic and self-reliant
Cause: Natural population growth and increasing immigration from Ireland and Germany
Effect: Made the fast-growing United States and the fourth most populous nation in the Western world
Cause: The poverty and Roman Catholic faith of most Irish immigrants
Effect: Aroused nativist hostility and occational riots
Cause: Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin
Effect: Transformed southern agriculture and gave new life to slavery
Cause: The passage of general incoporation and limited-liability laws
Effect: Enabled businesspeople to create more powerful and effective joint-stock capital ventures
Cause: The early efforts of labor unions to organize and strike
Effect: Aroused fierce opposition from businesspeople and were often declared illegal
Cause: Improved western transportation and the new McCormick reaper
Effect: Encouraged most western farmers to specialize in cach-crop agriculture productions for eastern and European markets
Cause: The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825
Effect: Opened the Great Lakes states to rapid growth and spurred the developement of major cities
Cause: The developement of a strong east-west rail network
Effect: Bound the two northern sections together accross the mountains and tended to isolate the South
Cause: The replacement of household production by factory-made, storebought goods
Effect: Weakened women's economic status and tended to push them into a separate "sphere" of home and family
_a_First telegraph message-"What hath God wrought?"-is sent from Baltimore to Washington
_b_Industrial revolution begins
_c_Telegraph lines are stretched across Atlantic Ocean and North American continent
_d_Major water transportation route connects New York City
_e_Invention of cotton gin and system of interchangeable parts revoluntionized southern agriculture and nothern industry
1. b
2. e
3. d
4. a
5. c