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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Honest Graft
This term, created by George Washington Plunkitt, referred to the police corruption that took place in the Tammany Hall political machine. The practices included paying bribes to make an individual a police officer, to get him a promotion, or to get him to the position of a sergeant as well as using privileged information for personal gain.
Boss Tweed
He was an important figure in New York's political machine, the Tammany Society. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. He controlled New York politics, and encouraged judicial corruption.
Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney, it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine. It gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices, and was opposed by reform groups. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868. Its leader, Alfred E. Smith, ran for president of the United States.
Thomas Nast
A political cartoonist and caricaturist, he became an illustrator for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper in 1855. His cartoons were instrumental in the downfall of Boss Tweed. He is also responsible for the modern caricatures of Santa Claus, and the symbols of the democratic and republican parties.
New Immigration
They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians, Slavs, Greeks, Jews, and Armenians. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe, and also from the Middle East. In the 1890s, their numbers first began to increase, and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America's foreign-born population by 18 million. They were often discriminated against.
It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people, like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful, and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes.
gilded age
On the surface everything appeared beautiful, however upon closer inspection, many problems were seen. Given its name by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley, it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists, swindlers, politicians who took bribes, and those who got rich in the postwar boom. The period was characterized by industrial production, westward expansion, immigration, and urban growth, as well as
strikes, depressions, despair and bitterness, buoyancy and free-spending. The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War, 1869, to the turn of the century.
He was a writer of juvenile fiction. His novels held a theme of rags to riches, where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty, diligence, and perseverance. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck, Tattered Tom, and his most famous Ragged Dick. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success, his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time.
During the decade of the 1870s, U.S. farmers were beset with problems of high costs, debts, and small profits. the farmers made their grievances known. Membership peaked in the mid- 1870s. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. To counteract unjust business practices, the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators, creameries, and stores.
This was an organization that represented the "common man." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century. They nominated James Weaver for president in 1892.
Omaha Platform
The Populist ideas represented views of farmers in the West as well as the industrial workers of the east. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks, enacting immigration restriction, setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term.
Free silver
This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s.
Mary Ellen Lease
She was a fiery lawyer from Wichita, Kansas who was very active in the movements for agrarian and labor reform. She burst out on to the scene in the 1890's as a spellbinding Southern alliance orator vehemently crying that the farmers needed to "raise less corn and more hell."
Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States and the principal figure of the Populist party, he molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912.
Cross of Gold Speech
William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver. As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Ohio, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake.
Marcus Hanna
He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.
Coxey’s Army
Demanding a public works program, thousands of unemployed men marched to Washington. Due to pressure from the federal government, state and local officials halted many of the marchers with only 600 finding their way to Washington D. C.
Social Gospel
Churches and Christians began to take an active role in solving social injustices. The Salvation Army and the YMCA were proponents of this.