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35 Cards in this Set

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Election of 1800 aka The Revolution of 1800
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went to the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket. Thomas Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution." Federalists lost the Presidency and control of Congress and this was the first instance where political power was transferred from one party to the another party. However, the transfer of power from one political party to the other was peaceful in nature.
12th Amendment, 1804
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie in the presidential election of 1800. This Amendment stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket, thus eliminating potential political problems. Before the passage of the 12th amendment, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Vice-President Aaron Burr, 1800-1804
Burr was a leading Democratic-Republican in New York and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The Federalist House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice-President.
President Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican so he believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution, although he was also a pragmatic president who proved willing to set aside constitutional scruples if he believed the circumstances warranted it (e.g. the Louisiana Purchase).
"Midnight" judges, 1801
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the judicial branch. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly appointed Federalist judges were called “midnight judges” because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments. The appointment of one of these appointees, James Marbury, became the subject of the famous Supreme Court case “Marbury vs. Madison.”
Barbary pirates, 1801
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary (Tripolitan) Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
Tripolitan War/ Barbary War, 1801-1805
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series of naval engagements launched by President Jefferson in an effort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, and afterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships from pirate attacks.
Toussaint L'Overture, 1803
He led a slave rebellion that took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the United States.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition traveled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Marbury v. Madison, 1806
A Supreme Court case that established the right of the Court to review the constitutionality of laws. The decision involved judicial appointments (midnight appointments) made during the last hours of the administration of President John Adams (1797-1801). Some commissions, including that of William Marbury, had not yet been delivered when President Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) took office. Infuriated by the last minute nature of Adams’s Federalist appointments, Jefferson refused to send the undelivered commissions out, and Marbury decided to sue. The Supreme Court ruled that although Marbury’s commission was valid and the new president should have delivered it, the Court could not compel him to do so. The Court based its reasoning on a finding that the grounds of Marbury’s suit, resting in the Judiciary Act of 1789, were in conflict with the Constitution,. This ruling established the concept of judicial review.
Judicial Review, 1806
The right of the courts to judge the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and the state legislatures. This power is implicit within the federal Constitution and was first practiced by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison in 1803.
Hamilton-Burr Duel, 1804
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican in the 1804 election, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
James Wilkinson, 1806 (Burr Conspiracy)
Wilkinson had been an officer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary of the board of war and clothier general to the army. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to receive the Louisiana Purchase from the French, and served as Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. He informed President Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himself implicated in the plot.
Burr Expedition, treason trial, 1807
After the duel, Aaron Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr's punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
Second Great Awakening, 1800
A series of Protestant religious revivals that began out of a concern of evangelical Christians over the spread of “infidelity” (any religion that wasn’t evangelical –such as Catholics). The revivals began in 1797 and lasted into the 1830’s. They stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects.
Zebulon Pike/Major Long, 1805-1807
• Zebulon Pike explored Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory. (He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged for his release.)
• Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
Impressment, early 1800s
Forcible, unwilling draft into military service. The British navy forced American merchant sailors into service in the years preceding the War of 1812, greatly increasing tensions between the two nations.
Orders-in-Council, 1807
British laws which helped lead to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, 1807
About ten miles off the coast of Virginia, the American frigate Chesapeake refused the demands of the captain of the British warship Leopard to come aboard to look for British deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake, killing three Americans and wounding eighteen others. The crippled American ship limped back into port. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an official apology. This incident, the issues of impressments, and violation of America's neutral shipping rights contributed greatly to the push for war in 1812.
Embargo of 1807
An act issued by Jefferson that forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Non-Intercourse Act, 1809
This law replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Macon's Bill No. 2, 1810
This law forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
West Florida, 1810
Spanish Florida was a threat to the southern states because slaves ran away to that area into Florida swamps and Indians raided southern settlements. American settlers seized the area in 1810 and then started thinking about how to get the rest of Florida. Since Spain was an ally of Britain this became another reasons to get into a war with Britain.
War Hawks, 1811-1812
Congressional leaders who, in 1811 and 1812, advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. The War Hawks were led by House member Henry Clay (Kentucky) and Senator John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). They also advocated war against Britain to defend national honor and force Britain to respect American shipping (neutrality rights). The War Hawks were primarily young Southern and Western members of Congress.
Causes of the War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain. President James Madison was reluctant to go to war, but the War Hawks (young westerner Congressmen led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress and Madison reluctantly asked for a declaration of war.
• American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British.
• British seizure of American merchant ships.
• British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier.
• A desire to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain.
Course of the War of 1812 (1812-1814)
• The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes.
• U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida
• The British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C.
• The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida.
• Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed two weeks before the treaty was signed.
• The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
• Sometimes called “The Second War of Independence.”
Events of the War of 1812: Perry, Lake Erie, Washington D.C., New Orleans
• Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie.
• Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814.
• The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war.
Tecumseh, 1813
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes into a confederacy to resist white advancements. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, "Star Spangled Banner", 1814
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry withstand a furious British naval attack lasting throughout the night. He was inspired to write the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune of an old English bar song.
Essex Junto, 1814
• Essex Junto began as a small, independent faction of prominent, educated men but developed into a strong section of the Federalist party, which exerted political influence for many years.
• It advocated the acceptance of the U.S. Constitution and the financial policies of Alexander Hamilton.
• The junto staunchly opposed the ideologies of President Thomas Jefferson, and the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited the exportation of American goods to France and England in an effort to compel those countries to ease their restrictions on U.S. trade. The opposition to this act was so vehement that it was repealed.
• The Essex Junto was opposed to the War of 1812.
• It convened, in secrecy, the Hartford Convention in 1814, which proved to be nothing but an airing of grievances without any serious solutions.
Hartford Convention, 1814
A convention of New England Federalists who met in Hartford , Connecticut, in December 1814 to protest Madison’s foreign policy in the War of 1812, which had hurt commercial interests in the North. They proposed amending the Constitution to prevent future presidents from declaring war without a two-thirds majority in Congress. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of that political party.
Treaty of Ghent, Decemer 24, 1814
Peace agreement that ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canadian / American border.
Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson, 1815
A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Lafitte. During this battle, approximately 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while the American army suffered only 8 casualties. Ironically, neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. Nevertheless, this great victory inspired American nationalism.
Second Bank of the United States, 1816
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The First Bank of the United States went out of existence when the charter was not renewed. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.