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98 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
James B. Weaver
candidate for the People's Party (Populists); advocated more substantial economic reform. He received over 1 million votes in the election of 1892
Crime of 73
1873, Congress passed a law that officially discontinued silver coinage; this was nost objectionable at the time, but later, the market value of silver fell below the mint ratio of 16 to 1.

Silver was now widely available for coinage, but Congress had closed this potential method of expanding the currency.

Americans believed that big bankers had conspired to "demonetize" silver.

Silver-mine owners and farmers were eager to remonetize silver. Silver-mine owners wanted the govt to buy surplus silver; farmers wanted to raise the prices of farm products.
Populist (People's) Party
Populist Party called for shorter hours for workers, restrictions on immigration, and denounced the use of private detective agencies as strikebreakers in labor disputes.

The party didn't attrack substantial labor support because labor demands and farmers demands were often at odds.
"Cross of Gold"
Speech given by William Jennings Bryan while campaigning for the election of 1896.

Because of his ardent defense of free silver, the Democrats voted to adopt the pro-silver platform, and farmers began to see Bryan as their leader.
A group of journalists who began to direct public attention toward social, economic, and political injustices. They were committed to exposing scandal, corruption, and injustice.

*Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities; machine govt and boss rule)
*Upton Sinclair (The Jungle; meat-packing industry)
Direct Primary
voters directly choose the candidates who will run for office; in most cases, only registered party members may vote in primaries
Direct Election of Senators
17th Amendment; ratified 1913

state residents will vote for senators; they will not be appointed/elected by a state legislature
Bull Moose Party
aka Progressives; created 1912 when Republican Party split; led by Teddy Roosevelt when he lost the Repub. nomination to Taft

Called for govt intervention to protect the people from selfish business interests
New Nationalism
Teddy Roosevelt's set of principles outlined in a speech given in Kansas 1910

Argues that social justice is possible only through the efforts of a strong federal govt whose executive is a "steward of the public welfare."

He supported graduated income and inheritance taxes, workers' comp for industrial accidents, regulation of women/child labor, tariff revision, and firmer regulation of corporations.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
founded 1909 by WEB DuBois; led the drive for equal rights, using federal lawsuits as a principal weapon
19th Amendment
ratified 1920

Women granted the right to vote
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act
1906; sought to restore some regulatory authority to the govt by giving the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to inspect the books of railroad companies
Federal Reserve Act
1913; created twelve regional banks, each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks of its district.

The regional Federal Reserve banks would hold a certain percentage of the assets of their member banks in reserve; they would use those reserve to support loans to private banks at an interest rate that the Federal Reserve system would set; they would issue Federal Reserve notes, which would become the nation's basic currency, backed by the govt.

They would be able to shift funds quickly to troubled areas, to meet increased demands for credit or to protect imperiled banks.

A national Federal Reserve Board, members appointed by the Pres, would supervise and regulate the system.
Yellow Journalism
a sensationalist style of reporting and writing, and a self-conscious effort to reach a mass market.
The Maine
US battleship blew up in Havana Harbor; many Americans assumed that the Spanish sunk the ship

War hysteria swept the country, exaggerated by yellow journalism newspapers, and Congress unanimously appropriated $50mill for military preparations
Theodore Roosevelt
26th Pres; 1901-1909
In Spanish-American War, led Rough Riders up San Juan Hill
Leader of Bull Moose Party
Treaty of Paris (1898)
formal end to Spanish-American War

confirmed terms of armistice concerning Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam; ceded Philippines to US, and US gave $20mill to Spain for them.
Teller Amendment
1898; US could not annex Cuba, but most leave control of the country to its own citizens
Platt Amendment
1901; barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations; gave US right to intervene in Cuba to preserve independence/life/property; required Cuba to permit US naval stations on its territory.

Left Cuba with only minimal political independence.
Open Door Notes
Sec. of State John Hays translated Open Door policy into the "Open Door Notes," given to Germany, Russia, England, France, Japan, Italy.

In Notes, he asked them agree that each nation with a 'sphere of influence' in China would allow other nations to trade freely and equally in its sphere.

Russia rejected them, Japan/Europe coolly received them. Countries claimed to accept them in principal but refused to act unless all powers agreed.

Hay announced that all powers accepted principles, and the US expected them to observe these principles. However, it was unenforcible.
Roosevelt and the "Big Stick"
slogan used to describe Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

US not only had the right to oppose European intervention in the W Hemisphere, but the US could itself intervene in domestic affairs of its neighbors if they couldn't maintain order/sovereignty themselves.
Hay-Herran Treaty
1903; between Sec. of State Hay and Colombia's Dr. Tomas Herran

Not ratified, but would have allowed US to acquire 99-yr renewable lease on strip of land in Panama (then part of Colombia)
Panamanian Revolution
Roosevelt landed troops in Panama to "maintain order," preventing Colombian troops from suppressing the rebellion. Three days later, Roosevelt recognized Panama as an independent nation.

Colombia refused to sign Hay-Herran treaty, so US staged this revolution in order to gain the land for the Panama Canal without the treaty.
Dollar Diplomacy
US policy (esp. under Taft) to further foreign policy aims in S America through use of its economic power, by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
British passenger ship sunk by German submarines in 1915; 128 Americans died

Wilson demanded that Germany promise not to repeat the event, and Germany agreed, but in 1916, when Allies announced they'd arm their merchant ships to sink submarines, Germany declared that it would fire on them without warning.

Germany sunk the French ship Sussex, again killing Americans. Wilson repeated his demand for the Germans to stop, and they relented.
Arabic Pledge
Germany would warn non-military ships 30 min before they sank them, to ensure that passengers/crew got out safely.

Broken 1916, when Germany destroyed French ship Sussex.
Sussex Pledge
Germany promised that:
*passenger ships wouldn't be targeted
*merchant ships wouldn't be sunk until it was proven that they carried contraband
*merchant ships wouldn't be sunk until provisions for safety of passengers/crew were made
Selective Service Act (1917)
Wilson passed the act which instated a national draft. It brought nearly 3 million men into the army
Committee on Public Information
Vast govt propaganda campaign; directed by George Creel

CPI supervised distribution of 75mill pieces of printed material and controlled much of the info available for newspapers and magazines.

Creel encouraged journalists to exercise self-censorship when reporting war news, and most journalists covered the war as the govt wanted.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act (1917)
Gave govt new tools with which to combat spying, sabotage, or obstruction of the war efforts

Sabotage & Sedition Act (1918)
made any public expression of opposition to the war illegal; allowed officials to prosecute anyone who criticized the Pres or govt.

These laws most often targeted anticapitalist groups such as the Socialist Party or the Wobblies
Schenk v. United States (1919)
Question of whether Schenk had 1st Amend. right to speak against the draft during wartime

Ruled that 1st Amend. didn't protect free speech that created a "clear and present danger" (eg shouting fire in crowded theatre)
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
ended WWI;

Germany and its allies would accept full responsibility for causing the war, would disarm, make territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain Allied countries
Fourteen Points
Wilson's proposed blueprint for peace and stability in Europe after WWI;

included free trade, open agreements, democracy, self-determination
Jazz Age
1920s, theme of the age was individualism and emphasis on pursuit of pleasures/enjoyment in the wake of WWI.
Scopes Trial
William Jennings Bryan (Creationism) and Clarence Darrow (Evolutionism) were lawyers in case testing validity of law that forbade teaching of evolution in TN.

Ultimately court ruled that the law forbidding evolution teaching was constitutional.
Harlem Renaissance
artistic, cultural, social revival in Harlem during 1920s

"Great Migration" of blacks to NE brought culture with them, and now had an outlet for expressing themselves through art, music, literature.
Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti
two anarchist immigrants accused of murder; case was weak and suffused with nativist prejudices, so they were convicted and sentenced to death.

Support for Sacco and Vanzetti grew over the next several years, but they were executed 1927, amid widespread protests.
Red Scare
After small groups of radicals presumed responsible for a series of bombings in 1919, Red Scare began.

30 states enacted new peacetime sedition laws imposing harsh penalties on those who promoted revolution. Spontaneous acts of violence against supposed radicals in some communities, and calculated efforts by universities, etc to expel radicals.
Palmer Raids
Attorney Gen. A Mitchell Palmer and his assistant J Edgar Hoover orchestrated a series of raids on alleged radical centers throughout the country and arrested over 6k ppl. Most of the arrested were released, but about 500 non-US citizens were deported.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)
raised taxes on over 20k imported goods to record levels; many countries retaliated and imports/exports plummetted.

Many critics believed it worsened the Great Depression
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
chartered during Hoover administration; gave $2bill in aid to state/local govts, made loans to banks, railroads, farm mortgage associations, etc.
Bonus Army
group of 31k WWI veterans who demonstrated in DC in 1932 to seek immediate payment of a "bonus" granted by the Adjusted Service Certification Law (1924), slated for payment in 1945
Hundred Days
first 100 days FDR was in office; set up New Deal programs.
Emergency Banking Act
FDR declared bank "holiday" to solve bank crisis.

Act provided for system of reopening sound banks under Treasury supervision, with federal loans available if needed.
Truth in Securities Act (1933)
required corporations issuing new securities to provide full and accurate information about them to the public
Economy Act
designed to convince the public, and esp. the business community, that the federal govt was in safe, responsible hands.

It proposed to balance the federal budget by cutting salaries of govt employees and reducing veterans' pensions by up to 15%
Glass-Steagall Act (1933)
gave govt the authority to curb irresponsible speculation by banks;

established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which guaranteed all bank deposits up to $2.5k
Securities and Exchange Commission (1934)
would police the stock market
Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933)
producers of seven basic commodities (wheat, cotton, corn, hogs, rice, tobacco, dairy) would decide on product limits for their crops.

The govt, through the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) would then tell individual farmers how much they should produce and would pay them subsidies for leaving land idle.

A tax on food processing would provide funds for subsidies
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
permitted the govt to pay farmers to reduce production in order to conserve soil, prevent erosion
Resettlement Administration (1935) and Farm Security Administration (1937)
provided loans to help farmers cultivating submarginal soil to relocate to better lands
Rural Electrification Administration
worked to make electric power available for the first time to thousands of farmers through utility cooperatives
National Recovery Act (1933)
established the Nat'l Recovery Adminstration (NRA)

director Johnson called on every business establishment to accept a temporary blanket code:
*minimum wage of 30-40 cents/hr
*max workweek of 35-40 hrs
*abolition of child labor

He also negotiated a more specific set of codes with leaders of major industries. These set floors below which no company would lower prices/wages in search for competitive advantage, and included provisions for maintaining employment and productive.
Section 7A of NIRA
promised workers the right to form unions and engage in collective bargaining and encouraged many workers to join unions

it contained no enforcement mechanisms
Public Works Administration (PWA)
established to administer the NIRA's spending programs
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
authorized to complete dam at Muscle Shoals and build others in the region, as well as to generate and sell electricy from them to the public at reasonable rates.

intended to be an agent for a comprehensive redevelopment of the entire region: for encouraging the growth of local industries, for supervising a substantial program of reforestation, and for helping farmers improve productivity

improved water transportation, eliminated flooding in the region, provided electricity to thousands
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
provided cash grants to states to prop up bankrupt relief agencies
Civil Works Administration
put over 4mill ppl to work on temporary projects, such as construction of roads, schools, and parks.
Civilian Conservation Corps
created camps in nat'l parks and forests; young unemployed men from cities worked in semimilitary environments on projects such as planting trees, building reservoirs, developing parks, and improving agricultural irrigation
Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
enabled farmers to regain land even after foreclosure of their mortgages
Huey Long
Senator who advocated Share-Our-Wealth plan as alternative to the New Deal

govt could end Depression by using the tax system to confiscate surplus riches of wealthy and redistributing the surplus to the rest of the population. The govt could guarantee every family a minimum "homestead" of $5k and an annual wage of $2.5k
Father Charles Coughlin
proposed a series of monetary reforms--remonetization of silver, issuing of greenbacks, nationalization of banking system.

he insisted this would resotre prosperity and ensure economic justice.
Francis Townsend
his "Townsend Plan" proposed that all Americans over 60yrs would receive monthly govt pensions of $200 if they retired and spent the money in full each month
"Roosevelt Recession"
Recession of 1937;

recession thought to be caused by high spending due to New Deal programs; helped strengthen new Conservative Coalition

by 1939, all effects of recession disappeared
Committee on Industrial Organization (CIO)
John Lewis founded; later renamed Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

expanded the constituency of the labor movement to include women/blacks; organized drives targeting previously unorganized insutries where women and minorities where a major part of the work force. CIO also more militant than AFL
Munich Agreement
agreement regarding Sudetenland Crisis

Hitler invaded Sudetenland; Allies agreed to let him keep the land as long as he didn't take any more land.
Atlantic Charter
negotiated at Atlantic Conference;

established vision for post-WWII world. self-determination, freedom on the seas, trade barriers lowered, territorial adjustments would be in accordance with wants of people
War Labor Board
est. 1918

served as final mediator in labor disputes
pressured industry to grant important concessions to workers: 8hr workday, maintenance of minimum living standards, equal pay for women doing equal work, recognition of right of unions to organize/bargain collectively.

in return, it insisted that workers forgo strikes and employers not engage in lockouts
Smith-Connally Act
required that unions wait 30 days before striking

empowered president to seize a struck war plant
GI Bill of Rights
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
provided housing, education, and job training subsidies to veterans; increased spending further
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
court ruled that internment of Japanese was NOT unconstitutional
Philip Randolph
Pres. of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (union w/ black membership)

insisted that govt require companies receiving defense contracts to integrate their work forces

he planned a massive march on DC, but FDR persuaded him to cancel the march in return for a promise to establish the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to investigate discrimination against blacks in war industries
Taft-Hartley Act
made closed shop (worker must be member of union to be hired) illegal; allowed creation of union shops (after being hired must join union); permitted states to pass right-to-work laws, prohibiting union shops.

allowed president to call for a 10-week "cooling-off" period before a strike by issuing an injunction against any work stoppage that endangered nat'l safey or health

the Act damaged weaker unions in lightly organized industries
Democrats who opposed Truman's civil rights bill broke with the party to form the Dixiecrat Party

candidate Strom Thurmond
McCarran Internal Security Act
required that all communist organizations register with the govt and publish their records

Truman vetoed, but Congress overrode the veto.
House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
held widely publicized investigations to prove that, under Democratic rule, govt had tolerated if not encouraged communist subversion

first targeted movie industry with the Hollywood Ten, arguing that communists infiltrated Hollywood and tainted US films with propaganda
Truman Doctrine
Diplomat George Kennan's belief that US policy must support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities and outside pressures

>>Stalin was trying to win control over vital sea lanes in Turkey; communists in Greece were threatening pro-W govt; US must assist pro-W forces in both cases
Marshall Plan
plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery

Russia + E allies rejected the plan, but 16 other nations agreed.

Marshall Plan funnelled over $12bill into Europe, helping to spark an economic revival.
George Kennan
diplomat whose beliefs became the basis of the Truman Doctrine
Berlin Blockade
Stalin imposed blockade around W sectors of Berlin to prevent W control of it

Truman ordered massive airlift to supply city with food/fuel/etc, for 10 months.

1949, Stalin lifted the ineffective bloackde

Oct, Germany was officially divided into 2 nations
The Open Door
1900, Europe+Japan had carved up China among themselves, seized Chinese territories and claimed them as "spheres of influence."

McKinley wanted access, but no special advantages, in China.

In "Open Door Notes," proposed that each nation with a sphere of influence allow all other nations to trade equally and freely within.
John Foster Dulles
innovated strategy of "massive retaliation"

US would respond to communist threats not by using conventional forces in local conflicts (as in Korea), but by relying on the deterrent nuclear power

reflected his inclination for tense confrontations, an approach called "brinkmanship">> pushing USSR to brink of war to get concessionsto
Dien Bien Phu
Village in Vietnam

French troops became surrounded in a seige there, but Eisenhower refused to permit direct US military intervention in Vietnam

France settled the conflict at the same internat'l conference that was settling the Korean War
Geneva Accords
1954; established temporary division of Vietnam along 17th ||

N governed by Ho Chi Minh, S by a W regime (Ngo Dinh Diem established as US by leader, no election b/c as Catholic, would lose to Buddhist majority)
USSR launched satellite into space; US hadn't done so and US govt/society began to panic.

federal policy began funding efforts to improve scientific education, create more research labs, and speed development of US's exploration of space
Missile Gap
perceived discrepancy between # and power of weapons in USSR and in US

due to exaggerated estimates by Gaither Committee and US Air Force
Interstate Highway Act (1956)
appropriated $41bill for highway construction; largest public works project to date

Eisenhower supported highways for nat'l defense
Brown v. BOE
overturned Pless v. Ferguson; ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional

segregation inflicted damage o those it affected, regardless of the relative quality of the schools.
Civil Rights Act 1965
akak Voting Rights Act

provided federal protection to blacks attempting to vote
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
integrated alternative to regular party; lead by Fannie Lou Hamer, etc

challenged regular party's right to its seats at Dem Nat'l Convention
Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty (INF)
agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev

eliminated nuclear and ballistic cruise missiles; both nations were allowed to respect each other's military installations
Domino Theory
if one region comes under communist control, nearby regions will soon follow

used during Cold War to justify US intervention
Iran-Contra Scandal
US admitted it sold weapons to the govt of Iran to (unsuccessfully) negotiate the release of US hostages

some of the money from the arms deal in Iran and been funnelled into aid to the contras in Nicaragua
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) aka Star Wars
through use of lasers and satellites, SDI would provide effective shield against incoming missiles, making nuclear war obsolete

USSR claimed that the new program would elevate the arms race to a more dangerous level, and insisted that any arms control agreement begin with US abandoning SDI
Voodoo Economics,
aka Supply-Side Economics
economic growth can be managed using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services
Iranian Hostage Crisis
US provided political and military support to Shah of Iran; his people, though, resented him and opposed his efforts to westernize Iranian society. He was forced to flee the country 1979

Zealous leader Ayatollah Kohmeini incited mob to invade US embassy in Tehran and seize diplomats as hostages

Weeks after hostage seizure, USSR troops invade Afghanistan and Carter imposes economic sanctions on USSR
Camp David Accords
Carter hosted Egyptian Begin and Israeli Sadat; they agreed on the framework for a peace treaty, and later signed the formal treaty known as the Camp David Accords
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
froze arsenals of some nuclear missiles (ICBMs) on US and USSR side