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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
As frustrations concerning government policies grew, this organization was created in 1962. It became a focal point for activist students. The SDS organized massive Vietnam Protests. They issued the Port Huron Statement which called for support of liberalism.
Silent Spring
Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published this work that addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides. Her writings coincided with many other novels that brought social issues to the surface.
Election of 1964
In this election, Lyndon Johnson, the elected Democratic party majority leader, defeated Barry Goldwater, the elected Republican majority leader. Main issues of this election included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan, future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation.
Office of Economic Opportunity
This was created as a part of President Johnson’s Great Society. It funded the Job Corps to train young people to work, VISTA, and Project Headstart.
War on Poverty
The term referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office, which began the first funding for education.
A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965, this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled.
New Left
This encompassed the liberalism of college students during the 1960s. They held idealistic views of civil rights movements, supported the election of John F. Kennedy, and heralded the campaign against nuclear testing that created the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. It was also the root of protest over Vietnam.
Election of the 1968
Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. Wallace, the American Independent and Hubert H. Humphrey, the Democratic candidate.
1968 Democratic Party Convention
The Chicago convention was disrupted by violence due to the party split over the nomination of the majority leader. Tensions rose as young SDS protestors against the Vietnam war arrived to voice their discontent. The riot destroyed Democratic unity and resulted in a loss of support.
Southern strategy
In 1965, Nixon began his attack on radicalism in America, focusing on the failure of southern white efforts to destroy racial equality. Nixon went on television to condemn the court that enforced bus desegregation. He also appointed Warren Burger to counter liberalism in the Warren Court.
George Wallace
He was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist. He ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
It was formed in 1966. Defining themselves as a civil-rights group for women, it lobbied for equal opportunity; they filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and rallied public opinion "to bring American women to full participation."
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
This stated that "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex."
Ralph Nader
He was a graduate of Harvard Law School, exposed the danger of automobiles that were "unsafe at any speed"; he brought forth the movement of environmental concerns which would later launch major campaigns for federal regulations.
Ho Chi Minh
He was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule. Hoping for U.S. assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence, He later turned to the Soviet Union when the U.S. aided the French. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. He led the Vietminh, a group of guerrillas. In 1954, they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
Domino Theory
Eisenhower’s claimed that once one nation fell to communism, bordering countries would followas well. The theory was used in context of the monolithic view of communism, which claimed that all communist countries were in a conspiracy to destroy democracy in the world. Applied to Asia, the U.S. could not let Vietnam fall after "losing" China to communism. Fearful of Soviet expansion, Eisenhower increased American involvement in Vietnam.
Dien Bien Phu
On May 7, 1954, the Vietminh surrounded and laid siege to the French garrison, forcing them to surrender. The U.S. refused to give aid to the French for fear of condoning imperialism. Facing this humiliating defeat, the French decided to give up their futile attempt to fight nationalist stirrings in Vietnam.
This was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army; the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. In support of Ho Chi Minh, the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Tet Offensive. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters.
After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves, Johnson and his advisers drafted this statement that committed the United States in Vietnam. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check," granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. This led to the increased U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31, 1968, which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated, the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. Popularity for the war vastly declined.
Pentagon Papers
Daniel Ellsberg was an analyst for the Department of Defense, who in 1971 released to the press an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people.
My Lai
Lt. Calley was an inexperienced commander of an American army unit massacred 347 defenseless women, children, and old men in 1968. The horrors of the massacre were revealed to the public and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, an organization of returning soldiers that renounced their war medals as a result.
Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war, but he could not allow the United States to lose face. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U.S. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. This was the the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors, allowed the U.S. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle.
The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve an easing of relations with the communist superpowers. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists.
Henry Kissinger
He flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. He negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States.