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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who worked to build his March-on-Washington Committee into an all-black protest movement. The Committee also engaged in civil disobedience to protest racial discrimination in all aspects of American life.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
This was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent, direct action. Led by James Farmer, it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities and later with voter registrations and sit ins.
Dr. Charles Drew
As an African-American physician, he developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion in 1944. He also conducted research on the preservation of blood and during WWII, he developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and French.
The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power."
Thurgood Marshall
1st African American justice of the Supreme Court, famous for his fight against discrimination, the death penalty, and his support of civil liberties and free speech. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. Board of Education, he was also the founder of the NAACP Legal Defense.
In December of 1955, Rosa Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man, and was therefore arrested which led to a 381 day struggle in Alabama.
Rev. Martin Luther King Jr
An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every African-American involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech. On April 4,1968 he was assassinated.
In the first attempt to enforce the Brown v. Board decision, Governor Orval E. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in 1957. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw, and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year. The school was then shut down in 1958-59.
Civil Rights Act,1957
Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites.
He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. He was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
In protest to Jim Crow, King organized this organization in 1957. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
This was created in 1909 in New York to raise the quality of living for inner city blacks. It became a powerful legal force and argued cases in the Supreme Court which led to the Brown v. Board decision, Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
This was a organization of college students that utilized nonviolent forms of protest until Carmicheal and Brown rallied the members in favor of Black Power. The group became more militant, pushing for direct armed confrontation with the police.
March on Washington
King organized this massive civil protest in August of 1963. It reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protest. It was also the site where King made the "I have a dream" speech.
Medgar Evers
He was an American civil rights leader who conducted campaigns to register black voters and organized boycotts of firms that practiced racial discrimination. He also was one of the early recruiters for the NAACP and was the first field secretary for the state of Mississippi.
Malcolm X
He was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. He was a part of the Nation of Islam, but broke with them to form a more comprehensive organization.
Black Muslims
Formally called the Nation of Islam, this was a religious organization of the Islamic faith that was also called the American Muslim Mission, World Community of Al-Islam in the West. The group was known for its strict adherence to Islam, and was a root for black militancy in America.
Black Panthers
This was a black rights political organization created in Oakland, California in 1966 by Bobby G. Seale and Huey P. Newton. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police.
Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael, leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers.
de facto segregation
This referred to the use of power and authority in the absence of an actual government or legal authority. In the 1960s, this meant that segregation was accepted as long as it was not outlawed.
de jure segregation
This referred to the system of segregation that was legal in the north such as New York and Chicago.
Passed under the Johnson administration, this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System.
This was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South, giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities.
Civil Rights Act, 1968
This barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights.