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18 Cards in this Set

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encomiendas
A system of tributory labor established in Spanish America. It was developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply. It gave the conquistador control over the native populations requiring them to pay tribute from their lands.
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of biological organisms between continents. The diseases brought to the American continent that helped to nearly destroy the native populations is one example. Besides disease, many plants and animals have been brought to new environments with varying consequences.
Joint Stock Company
A business owned by a group of shareholders to gain a monopoly of trade or colonization of a region. Examples operated in England and dealt with colonial markets in America. Such companies organized and supported the colonies through charters from the British government.
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. It grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
starving time
The period early in any settlements development when food and supplies are scarce due to lack of preparation, unfamiliarity with the surroundings, weather, and inability to successfully grow crops. This usually cost a large percentage of the settlers lives and lasted for the first few years.
John Smith
Colonial leader who brought structure and stability to Jamestown during its starting years. As a member of the governing council of Virginia he was chosen to replace the previous president in 1608. He is credited with organizing trade with the Powhatan Confederacy and leading the colony through its roughest years.
John Rolfe
English colonist and farmer who greatly aided the colony. He is credited with introducing tobacco as a crop for export, which ensured the colony of profits. He also ushered in eight years of peace between Indians and colonists through his marriage to Pocahontas.
Pequot War
: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by the Native Americans in 1637. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English, opening the way to New England’s settlement.
King Phillips War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Feudalism
Fabric of European civilization during the middle ages. Economic and social constraints whereby the landed noble ruled, protected and policed the neighboring population in return for goods and services.
Renaissance
A revived interest in classical antiquity that triggered, during the 14th and 15th centuries, a period of intellectual and artistic flowering which celebrated the human possibility.
Reconquista
The centuries long struggle for Iberia between the Catholics and the Muslims. The Catholics were victorious.
Mestizo
People of European and Indian ancestry.
Mulatto
People of European and African ancestry.
Council of the Indies
The ruling body of the Spanish colonies composed of the king’s principal advisors. However the council was halfway around the globe and its authority was often defied.
Reformation
The religious revolution that took place in the 16th century. The conflict over the root of salvation and the corruption of the Catholic Church. The founding of the Protestant religion was a major outcome.
Martin Luther
Led the Reformation by declaring that eternal salvation was a gift form God rather than something earned by faith and good works.
Enclosure
Practice where the English landlords fenced off the common pastures in order to increase their wealth and to fight inflation. The practice led to high unemployment and economic problems for the peasants. Richard Hakluyt said the Americas should be populated by these “multitide of loiterers and vagabonds.”