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32 Cards in this Set

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Realizing that many children of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first generation were not actively seeking God's saving grace and full church membership, the question was how to keep the next generation of children active in church affairs. The solution, agreed to in 1662, was to permit the baptism of children and grandchildren of professing saints, thereby according them half-way membership. Full church membership still would come only after individuals testified to a conversion experience. This compromise on standards of membership was seen as a sign of declension
Halfway Covenant
The first secretary of the treasury and a leader of the Federalist party. As secretary of the treasury, he devised a plan for repaying the nation's debts and promoting economic growth. This plan included funding and assumption of the national and state debts and face value, establishment of the Bank of the US and tariffs on imported goods. _______ died following a duel with Aaron Burr in 1804
Alexander Hamilton
Self-conscious African American cultural, literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem in NYC during the 1920s
Harlem Renaissance
Convention held in late 1814 and early 1815 by New Englanders opposed to the War of 1812, which recommended Constitutional amendments to weaken the power of the South and to restrict Congress' power to impose embargoes or declare war
Hartford Convention
A violent encounter between police and protesters in 1886 in Chicago, which led to the execution of four protest leaders, it scared the public with the specter of labor violence and demonstrated governments' support of industrialists over workers
Haymarket Square Riot
As an economic incentive to encourage English to settle in VA and other English colonies during the 17th century, sponsoring parties would offer 50 acres of land per person to those who migrated or who paid for the passage of others willing to migrate to America. Because of VA's high death rate and difficult living conditions, __________ functioned as an inducement to help bolster the colony's low settlement rate
The NC-born author of The Impending Crisis of the South, a book that argued that slavery was incompatible with economic progress
Hinton Rowan Helper
Six German principalities provided 30,000 soldiers to Great Britain to fight against the American rebels during the War for Independence. More than half of these troops-for-hire came from Hesse-Cassel. Hessian thus would serve as the generic term for all German mercenaries fighting in the war, whether or not they came from Hesse-Cassel
Tolerance of religious diversity was at the core of William Penn's vision for a colony in America. As such, the colony of Pennsylvania represented a "________" for Penn. He encouraged people of all faiths to live together in harmony and to maintain harmonious relations with Native Americans in the region. The residents of early Pennsylvania never fully embraced Penn's vision, but the colony was open to religious dissenters and became a model for the diversity that later characterized America
Holy Experiment
Herbert Hoover's program as director of the Food Administration to conserve food during WWI
Shanty towns of the Great Depression, named after President Herbert Hoover
This House of Reps committee investigated subversive right and left-wing movements. During the Cold War, it was best known for its two investigations of the American film industry.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Founder of the nation's first school for the blind
Samuel Gridley Howe
The British tried to execute this strategy early in the War for American Independence but never successfully implemented it. The idea was to gain control of the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor running north from NYC and south from Montreal, Canada. Had they done so, the effect would have been to cut off New England, the initial center of rebellion, from the rest of the colonies. New England could then have been reconquered in detail. The failure to coordinate the movements of British forces in 1776 and 1777 resulted in the capture of John Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, NY, in October, which ended any attempt to snuff out the rebellion by retaking New England
Hudson Highlands Strategy
Defined by historian Donald Worster as "a social order based on the intensive manipulation of water and its products in an arid setting," it characterized the irrigated societies of the modern West, allowing for agricultural productivity and a massive demographic shift westward.
Hydraulic Society
The view that the national government's powers are not limited to those stated explicitly in the US Constitution
Implied Powers
The British practice of seizing seamen from American merchant ships and forcing them to serve in the British navy. ________ was one of the causes of the War of 1812
During the early 19th century, reformers succeeded in restricting imprisonment of debtors
Imprisonment for Debt
In an effort to entice English subjects to the colonies, parties would offer legal bonded contracts that would exchange the cost of passage across the Atlantic for up to seven years of labor in America. Indenture contracts also required the masters to provide food, clothing, farm tools and sometimes land when the term of bonded service had expired, thus allowing former servants the opportunity to gain full economic independence in America
Indentured Servitude
Redemption certificates pardoning persons from punishment in the afterlife that were being sold by the Roman Catholic church. Martin Luther particularly condemned this practice in his Ninety-Five Theses, in bringing on the Protestant Reformation
1890 book by Alfred Thayer Mahan that argued nations expand their world power through foreign commerce and a strong navy. Strongly influenced American politicians who advocated expansion
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
A procedure that allows citizens to propose legislation through petitions, it was passed by numerous states at the turn of the century but rarely used until the 1970s
Initiative and Referendum
The legal principle that a criminial should only be punished if the offender was fully capable of distinguishing right from wrong
Insanity Defense
The first federal regulatory agency, established by passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 to regulate the railroads. The ICC's powers were expanded to oversee other forms of transportation and communication
Interstate Commerce Commission
In November 1979, Iranian students seized the US embassy compound in Tehran and held 52 Americans inside hostage for 444 days
Iranian hostage crisis
As major general during the War of 1812, he defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and a British army at the Battle of New Orleans. In 1818, he led an American incursion into Spanish-held FL. He served as seventh president of the US from 1829-1837
Andrew Jackson
Musical style based on improvisation within a band format, combining African traditions of repetition, call and response, and a strong beat with European structure
The primary autbhor of the declaration of Independence, the first secretary of State, and the third president of the US. As president, he was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo of 1807, which sought to end British and French interference with American shipping
Thomas Jefferson
This appellation was used to refer to common soldiers serving in the Confederate armies during the Civil War. See Billy Yank
Johnny Reb
These companies were given the right to develop trade between England and certain geographic regions, such as Russia or India. Investors would pool their capital, in return for shares of stock, to underwrite trading ventures. One such company, the VA Company, failed to secure profits for its investors but laid the basis for the first major English colony in the Americas
Joint Stock Trading Companies
The power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of acts of other branches of government and to declare unconstitutional acts null and void
Judicial Review
Passed by the Federalists after they had lost control of Congress in the election of 1800, the act reduced the size of the Supreme Court, created a new set of circuit courts, and increased the number of district court judges. The Jeffersonian Republicans repealed the act in 1801
Judiciary Act of 1801