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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A landmark 1819 Supreme Court decision protecting contracts. In the case, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the charters of business corporations are contracts and thus protected under the U.S. Constitution
Dartmouth v. Woodward
Legislation passed in 1887 to authorize the president to divide tribal land and distribute it to individual Native Americans, it gave 160 acres to each head of the household in an attempt to assimiliate Indians into citizenship
Dawes Severalty Act
June 6, 1944, the day Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, in France, leading to the defeat of Germany
A term associated with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, referring to the declining zeal of later generations or movement away from the utopian ideals of those Puritan leaders, such as John Winthrop, who founded the colony. As an example of ___________, see halfway covenant
An economic policy, begun during the administration of Jimmy Carter, which freed air and surface transportation, the savings and loan industry, natural gas, and other industries from many government economic controls
A relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that was begun by President Richard M. Nixon
Although a Catholic in a Buddhist nation and a leader with no popular charm, the American government manufactured in _____ 1956 election because of his anticommunist views. The American government gradually realized ______'s lack of popular support and stood by when he was assassinated in 1963
Ngo Dinh Diem
Vietminh siege of 13,000 French soldiers in 1954 at a remote military outpost. The French surrender led to the 1956 elections designed to reunify Vietnam
Dien Bien Phu
Long-held belief that monarchs were God's political stewards on earth. Because their authority to rule supposedly came directly from God, the decision making of monarchs was held to be infallible and thus could not be questioned. Some of England's Stuart kings in the seventeenth century viewed themselves as ruling by divine right, a position that numerous subjects rejected, even to the point of civil war in the 1640s and the beheading of Charles I in 1649
Divine Right Rule
The leader of efforts to reform the treatment of the mentally ill
Dorothea Dix
The nation's most famous fugitive slave and African-American abolitionist, _______ supported political action against slavery
Frederick Douglass
Apartment buildings built to minimal codes and designated to cram the largest number of people into the smallest amount of space. The dumbbell indentation in the middle of the building, although unsightly, conformed to the ___________
Dumbbell Tenement
___________________ required all rooms to have access to light and air
Tenement Reform Law of 1879
In November 1775 John Murray, Lord Dunmore (Virginia's last royal governor), issued an emancipation proclamation that freed all slaves and indentured servants living in VA who were willing to bear arms against their rebellious masters. As many as 2000 slaves fled to the British banner, and some became members of Dunmore's Ethiopian regiment. With little in arms, this regiment fared poorly in a battle with VA militia in December 1775. An outbreak of smallpox later killed many of the ex-slaves who responded to Dunmore's proclamation
Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment
Public transportation for urban neighborhood, using electric current from overhead wires. Between 1888 and 1902, 97 percent of urban transit mileage had been electrified
Electric Trolley
President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation in Sept. 1862 that all slaves would be declared free in those states that were still in rebellion against the Union at the beginning of 1863. Receiving no official response from the Confederacy, Lincoln announced the _______ on Jan. 1, 1863. All slaves in the rebellious Confederate states were to be forever free. However, slavery could continue to exist in border states that were not at war against the Union. Lincoln's _________ represented the beginning of the end of chattel slavery in the US.
Emancipation Proclamation
An attempt to stop British and French interference with American shipping by prohibiting foreign trade
Embargo of 1807
A poet and essayist, _______ espoused a philosophy called transcendentalism, which emphasized self-reliance and intuition
Ralph Waldo Emerson
As the demand for wool heightened in England during the 16th century because of the emerging textile industry, Parliament passed laws that allowed profit-seeking landowners to fence in their open fields to raise more sheep. Thousands of peasants who, as renters, had been farming these lands for generations were evicted and thrown into poverty. Many moved to the cities, where as "sturdy beggas" they too often found little work. In time, some migrated to English colonies in America, where work opportunities were far more abundant.
Enclosure Movement
The gov't in Spain gave away large tracts of conquered land in Spanish America, including whole villages of indigenous peoples, to court favorites, including many conquistadores. These new landlords, or encomenderos, were supposed to educate the natives and teach them the Roman Catholic faith. The system was rife with abuse, however. Landlords rarely offered much education, preferring instead to exploit the labor of the local inhabitants, whom they treated like slaves.
Encomienda System
A broadly influential philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe during the eighteenth century. The _____________ unleashed a tidal wave of new learning, especially in the sciences and mathematics, that helped promote the notion that human beings, through the use of their reason, could solve society's problems. The ___________era, as such, has also been called "The Age of Reason". Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were leading proponents of ________ thinking in America.
Products grown or extracted from England's North American colonies that could be shipped only to England or other colonies w/in the empire. Goods on the first _________ list included tobacco, indigo, and sugar. Later furs, molasses, and rice would be added to a growing list of products that the English colonies could not sell directly to foreign nations
Enumerated Goods
Proposed Constitutional amendment that would prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender
Equal Rights Amendment
Phrase used to describe the years following the War of 1812, when one party, the Jeffersonian Republicans, dominated politics, and a spirit of nationalism characterized public policy
Era of Good Feelings
A current of Protestant Christianity emphasizing personal conversion, repentance of sin, and the authority of Scripture
Evangelical Revivalism (Revivals)