Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Oil supply disruptions and soaring oil prices that the United States experienced in 1973 and 1979. In 1973, Middle Eastern nations imposed an embargo on oil shipments to punish the West for supporting Israel in that year's Arab-Israeli war. A second oil shock occurred when the Iranian Revolution disrupted oil shipments to the western nations.
Oil Crisis
As the Great Awakening spread during the 1730s and 1740s, various religious groups fractured into two camps, sometimes known as the Old Lights and the New Lights. The _________ were not very enthusiastic about the Awakening, particularly in terms of what they viewed as popular excesses in seeking after God's grace. _______ ministers emphasized formal schooling in theology as a source of as a source of their religious authority, and they emphasized good order in their churches.
Old Lights
Penny-pinching owner of baseball's Dodgers who oversaw their 1958 move from Brooklyn to Los Angeles. Unhappy with the deterioration of Brooklyn's neighborhoods and lured by the economic promise of California, the Dodgers' move west illustrated the profound westward-demographic shift in modern America
Walter O'Malley
Policy set forth in 1899 by Secretary of State John Hay preventing further partitioning of China by European powers, and protecting the principle of free trade
Open Door Note
An American military intervention in Panama in December 1989, which was launched after Panama's leader, Manuel Noriega, who was indicted on drug-related charges, invalidated civilian elections and declared a state of war in the United States
Operation Just Cause
A financial depression that lasted until the early 1840s
Panic of 1837
African-American seamstress and active NAACP member arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white patron in Montgomery, AL, prompting a huge bus boycott led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rosa Parks
__________ social and political systems are denoted by power and authority residing in males, such as the father of the family. Such authority then passes from father to son through the generations, and males, in general, control decision-making.
An organization founded in 1867 to aid farmers through its local granges, it was responsible for state laws regulating railroads, established cooperatives to help with marketing problems, and provided a social outlet for rural areas.
Patrons of Husbandry
The main base of the U.S. Pacific fleet, which Japan attacked on December 7, 1941, forcing the United States to enter World War II
Pearl Harbor
A law passed in 1883 to eliminate political corruption in the federal government, it outlawed political contributions by appointed officeholders and established the Civil Service Commission to administer competitive examinations for covered government jobs.
Pendleton Act
Immigrants coming to America to settle permanently, often due to ethnic and religious persecution at home
Permanent Immigrants
Indentured servitude represented temporary service for a specified period, usually from four to seven years, to a legally designated owner. _________ meant being owned by some other person for life - and ultimately, even through the generations. In the early days of Virginia, both English subjects and African Americans were indentured servants, but over time blacks would be subjected to ________ as chattels, defined as the movable property of ther all-powerful masters and without legal rights of any kind.
Perpetual Servitude
Communist China's chairman Mao Tse-tung sent a table tennis team to the world championships in Nagoya, Japan, and then invited an American team to compete in Japan in 1971. This small gesture paved the way for Nixon's visit to China in February 1972.
Ping-Pong Diplomacy
A stereotype created by popular pre-Civil War writers, that depicted the South as a region of aristocratic planters, beautiful Southern belles, poor white trash, and faithful household slaves
Plantation Legend
1901 amendment to the Army Appropriation Bill, limiting Cuban independence by giving the US two naval bases in Cuba and the right to intervene in Cuban affairs if the American gov't felt Cuban independence was threatened
Platt Amendment
A Supreme Court decision in 1896 that ruled "separate but equal" facilities for African Americans were constitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment, it had the effect of legalizing segregation and led to the passage of much discrimintory legislation known as Jim Crow laws
Plessy v. Ferguson
During the 1760s and 1770s many colonial leaders believed that if they did not keep resisting unwanted British policies, they would fall into a state of political slavery in which they had no liberties. As such, they would be akin to chattel slaves in their midst. Comprehending how potentially tyrannical chattel slavery was spurred on many colonists to defend American liberties, even to the point of open rebellion
Political Slavery
As president of the United States during the Mexican War, _____ increased American territory by a third
James K. Polk
The principle, incorporated into the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, that the people living in the western territories should decide whether or not to permit slavery
Popular Sovereignty
A political party established in 1892 primarily by remnants of the Farmers' Alliance and Greenback party, it sought to inflate the currency with silver dollars and to establish an income tax but some of its platform was adopted by the Democrats in 1896 and it died out after the defeat of joint candidate William Jennings Bryan
Populist (People's) Party
A distinctly American philosophy proposed by William James, it contends that any concept should be tested and its validity determined by its outcome and that the truth of an idea is found in the conduct it dictates or inspires
The large influx of gold and silver into Europe from Spanish America during the sixteenth century, along with increased demand for limited supplies of goods, set off a three-fold rise in prices (the "great inflation") that caused profound economic turmoil, social disruption, and political instability among European peoples and nations
Price Revolution
A political party established in 1912 by supporters of Theodore Roosevelt after William H. Taft won the Republican presidential nomination. The party proposed a broad program of reform but Bull Moose candidate Roosevelt and Republican nominee lost to the Democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
The ban of production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The Eighteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1919, established _________. The amendment was repealed in 1933, with the adoption of the Twenty-first Amendment
A religious reform movement formally begun in 1517 when the German friar Martin Luther openly attacked abuses of Roman Catholic doctrine. Luther contended that the people could read scripture for themselves in seeking God's grace and that the Bible, not church doctrine, was the ultimate authority in human relationships. Luther's complaints helped foster a variety of dissenting religious groups, some of which would settle in America to get away from various forms of oppression in Europe.
Protestant Reformation
A cornerstone of good citizenship in republican states, ___________ involved the subordination of individual self-interest to serving the greater good of the whole community. Revolutionary leaders believed that ________ was essential for a republic to survive and thrive. If absent, governments would be torn apart by competing private interests and succumb to anarchy, at which point tyrants would emerge to offer political stability but with the loss of dearly won political liberties
Public Virtue
A faction of the Republican party during Reconstruction, they favored forcing the South to make fundamental changes before readmission the Union. Eventually they won control because of Southerners' refusal to accept more lenient plans for Reconstruction
Radical Republicans
At the time of the American Revolution, they argued in favor of establishing more democratic forms of government. ____________ had a strong trust in the people, viewed them as inherently virtuous, and believed that citizens could govern themselves. Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine might be described as ___________.
Radical Revolutionaries
Meaning a passion for arms, the _________ characterized the attitudes of American colonists as the war with Great Britain began in 1775. When the ravages and deprivations of warfare became more self-evident, however, this early enthusiasm gave out. In 1776 when Thomas Paine criticized the "summer soldiers and sunshine patriots" among the colonists who seemed so eager to fight at the beginning of the War for Independence but who so quickly dropped out as the dangers of engaging in warfare increased
Rage Militaire
A main tenet of the Enlightenment era, meaning a firm trust in the ability of the human mind to solve earthly problems, thereby lessening the role of - and reliance on - God as an active force in the ordering of human affairs
President Ronald Reagan's 1985 pledge of American aid to insurgent movements attempting to overthrow Soviet-back regimes in the Third World
Reagan Doctrine
The _____________ labor system was similar to that of indentured servitude in providing a way for persons without financial means to get to America. Normally, the family had to locate someone to pay for its passage in return for a set number of years of labor. If no buyer could be found, then ships captains could sell the family's labor, most likely on less desirable terms for the family, to recoup the costs of passage. Thousands of Germans migrated to America as ____________ in the 18th century
Sociologists who rejected the determinism of the Social Darwinists, they accepted evolutionary theory but held that people could shape their environment rather than only be shaped by it and accepted human intervention in society
Reform Darwinists
A religious viewpoint that rejected the Calvinist doctrines of original sin and predestination and stressed the basic goodness of human nature
Religious Liberalism
A national catch phrase following the mysterious 1898 explosion of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor, inflamed public opinion, leading to the Spanish-American War
Remember the Maine!
A policy of resettling eastern Indian tribes on lands west of the Mississippi River
Removal (Indian Removal Policy)
Beginning in the 1400s, the European ___________ represented an intellectual and cultural flowering in the arts, literature, philosophy and sciences. OPne of the most important tenets of the ________ was the belief in human progress, or betterment of society
This definition of motherhood, emanating from the American Revolution, assigned mothers the task of raising dutiful children, especially sons, who would be prepared to serve the nation in a disinterested fashion. Mothers thus acquired the special charge of assuring that future generations could uphold the tenets of republicanism. This expanded role for mothers meant that women, not men, would be responsible for the domestic sphere of life.
Republican Motherhood
At the time of the American Revolution, _________ referred to the concept that sovereignty, or ultimate political authority, is vested in the people - the citizens of the nation. As such, _________ governments not only derive their authority from the consent of the governed but also predicate themselves on the principles of rule by law and legislation by elected representatives
A political party founded by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson to combat Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies.
Musical style new to the 1950s, combining black rhythm and blues with white country music. Listened to mostly by young Americans and embodied by Elvis Presley, the music softly challenged notions of sexual propriety and racial division
Rock and Roll
Prior to its formal involvement in the War for Independence, the French government supplied the American rebels with critically needed war goods through a bogus private trading firm known as _____________. French officials did so because they hoped to see the power of Great Britain reduced but without becoming directly engaged in the war itself. Once the Franco-American alliance came into being in 1778, the French could abandon such ruses in favor of open support of their rebel allies
Roderigue Hortalez & Cie.
American radicals accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets during WWII. Although the death penalty was not mandatory for their crime, their 1953 execution reflected the national anti-communist hysteria.
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Failed movement led by conservative W'ern politicians to cede federal control of W'ern land to individual states, promoting private ownership and commercial development
Sagebrush Rebellion
Imperious British prime minister who rejected American intervention in an 1895 border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana, prompting an American threat of military involvement. ________ ultimately reversed his position and allowed a commission to arbitrate the dispute
Lord Salisbury
This term signifies England's relatively benign neglect of its American colonies from about 1690 to 1760. During these years King and Parliament rarely legislated constraints of any kind and allowed the colonists much autonomy in provincial and local matters. In turn, the colonists supported the parent nation's economic political objectives. This harmonious period came to an end after the Seven Years' War when King and Parliament began asserting more control over the American colonists through taxes and trade regulations
Salutary Neglect
The Mexican general and president whose defeat at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836 permitted Texas to gain its independence
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Southern white Republicans during Reconstruction, they came from every class and had a variety of motives but were pictured by their opponents as ignorant and degraded
The 1925 trial of John Scopes for teaching Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in a Tennessee public school; also called the "Monkey Trial"
Scopes Trial
A Missouri slave, _____ sued for his freedom on the grounds that his master had taken him onto free soil. The Supreme Court ruled in 1857 that Scott was not a citizen and that Congress had no power to exclude slavery from the federal territories
Dred Scott
A national bank chartered in 1816 to hold gov't funds, ease the transfer of money across state lines, and regulate private banks. Its federal charter expired in 1836
Second Bank of the United States
This body gathered in Philadelphia during May 1775 after the shooting war with Great Britain had started. The ________ functioned as a coordinating gov't for the colonies and states in providing overall direction for the patriot war effort. It continued as a central legislative body under the Articles of Confederation until 1789 when a new national legislature, the federal Congress as established under the Constitution of 1787, first convened
Second Continental Congress
A wave of religious fervor and revivalism that swept the US from the early 19th century through the Civil War
Second Great Awakening
The second stage of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's economic recovery and reform program, launched January 4, 1935.
Second New Deal
Religious dissenters from England who believed that the state-supported Anglican church, or Church of England, was too corrupt to be reformed. Thus, like the Pilgrims, they often migrated elsewhere to form their own religious communities
A reform movement growing out of Jane Addams' Hull House in the late 19th century, it led to the formation of community centers in which mainly middle-class women sought to meet the needs of recent immigrants to urban centers
Settlement House Movement
Secretary of State for Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, and advocate of a vigorous expansionism. He is perhaps best known for the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million, an act labeled "_____'s Folly"
William Henry Seward
A system of labor to replace slavery that allowed landless farmers to work the land of others for a share of crops they produced. It was favored by freed people over gang labor but often resulted in virtual peonage.
Beset by a hard-hitting economic depression after the War of American Independence, these farmers from w'ern Massachusetts finally rose up in rebellion against their state government in 1786 because they had failed to obtain tax relief. One leader of the uprising was Daniel Shays, from whom the Shaysites derived their name
Shays' Rebellion
A law passed in 1890 to break up trusts and monopolies, it was rarely enforced except against labor unions and most of its power was stripped away by the Supreme Court, but it began federal attempts to prevent unfair, anti-competitive business practices
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
A form of non-violent protest in which civil rights activists occupy seats in a segregated establishment
Legal codes that defined the slaveholders' power and the slaves' status as property
Slave Codes
The founder of the Mormon Church, Smith was murdered in Illinois in 1844.
Joseph Smith Jr.
The chemical-laden fog caused by automobile engines, a serious problem in s'ern California. Like nuclear waste and the shrinking water supply, it reflects the problems associated with the rapid demographic shift to the West in modern times
An ideology based upon the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin, it justified the concentration of wealth and lack of governmental protection of the weak through the ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest
Social Darwinism
A movement among Christian theologians, it applied Christian doctrines to social problems and advocated creating living conditions conducive to saving souls by tackling the problems of the poor
Social Gospel
Once France formally entered the War for Independence in 1778 on the American side, the British had to concern themselves with protecting such vital holdings as their sugar islands in the Caribbean region. Needing to disperse their troop strength, the idea of the S'ern strategy was to tap into a perceived reservoir of loyalist numbers in the s'ern colonies. Reduced British forces could employ these loyalists as troops in subduing the rebels and as civil officials in reestablishing royal governments. The plan failed for many reasons, including a shortfall of loyalist support and an inability to hold ground once conquered in places like SC
Southern Strategy
A term for hard coin, such as gold or silver
Religious songs composed by enslaved African Americans
The policy of awarding political or financial help with a governmental job. Abuses of the spoils system led to the passage in 1883 of the Pendleton Act, which created the Civil Service Commission to award gov't jobs on the basis of merit
Spoils System
Russian satellite that successfully orbited the earth in 1957, prompting Americans to question their own values and educational system. The hysteria over Soviet technological superiority led to the 1958 National Defense Education Act
The economic conditions of slow economic growth, rising inflation, and flagging productivity that characterized the American economy during the 1970s.
Soviet premier in the 1930s and 1940s, known for his violent purges of internal political enemies and his suspicion of Western leaders, an ideology guided by two major German invasions into Russia
Joseph Stalin
This intercolonial body of political leaders from nine colonies met for a few days in October 1765 to consider ways to protest the Stamp Act. The delegates drafted a petition declaring that Parliament shound not tax Americans, since they were not represented in that legislative body. The Congress showed that the colonies, when aggrieved, could act in unity, an important precedent for further intercolonial resistance efforts in years to come
Stamp Act Congress
Organizer of the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, _______ led the struggle for women's suffrage
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Arms control treaty signed by President Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev. Although it only froze the deployment of relatively inconsequential intercontinental ballistic missiles, this first treaty, would lead to more comprehensive arms reduction treaties in the future
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of 1972 (SALT 1)
The view that the powers of the national gov't are limited to those described in the US Constitution
Strict Construction