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160 Cards in this Set

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parietal peritoneum
the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity.
-outer layer
visceral peritoneum
is wrapped around the internal organs that are located inside the abdominal cavity.
-inner layer
mesentery
Epithelial cells supporting the digestive organs
mesocolon
mesentery that holds the lower colon the back abdominal wall
falciform ligament
a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the diaphragm and the abdominal wall
lesser omentum
The lesser omentum is the peritoneal fold extending from lesser curvature of the stomach to liver.
greater omentum
The greater omentum is the peritoneal fold extending from the greater curvature of the stomach to the colon, and hanging down over the small intestine.
buccal cavity
mouth opening
facues
throat
hard palate
bony part of roof of mouth
soft palate
The soft, squishy area on the roof of your mouth near the back (behind the hard palate).
uvula
The soft flap of tissue that hangs down at the back of the mouth
dentes
teeth or gum area made up definition by kimberly brandon I know your gonna re look this one up its not on google
gingivae
gums of the mouth
crown
the part of a tooth above the gum that is covered with enamel
dentin
A tissue, hard and bone-like, that forms most of the tooth.
pulp cavity
the central, living portion of a tooth, richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
root canals
space in the root of tooth that contains pulp tissue
enamel
hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth
cementum
hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth
periodontal ligament
The connecting ligament between a tooth and the bony socket
permanent dentition (dental formula) 2-1-2-3
the secondary teeth, which includes a maximum of 32 teeth.
deglutition
swallowing
adventitia of esophogus
visceral covering of the esophogus
alimentary canal
-opening to the outside of the body ex) mouth and anus
name layers of wallas of alimentary canal in order from innermost to outer.
1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis
- circular
- longitudinal
4. serosa
mucosa
-innermost of tissue layers
- is a mucous membrane
- comprised of epithelial tissue
-provides for protection, secretions, and absorbtion
submucosa
-2nd layer from inside
- comprised of areolar connective tissue
-is a highly vascularized layer
muscularis
-3rd layer from the inside
- thickest layer comprised of smooth muscle tissue
- contains a little bit of skeletal muscle known as schincters
-contains two other layers circular and longitudinal
Autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic vs sympathetic in relation to digestion)
-controls the digestive system
- parasympathetic activity favors digestion, should be down time after eating
-sympathetic functions will decrease functions of the digestive system
myenteric plexus
major part of the autonomic system that regulates workings of the digestive system. a network of fibers embedded into muscle layer of wall of alimentary canal. Helps to regulate GI tract motility (peristalsis), which are wave like contractions
serosA
-outermost tunica
-a serous membrane
Mouth
-oral or boccal cavity
- oral mucosa - statified squamous epithelium that lines the mouth
-site of ingestion
-initiates digestion (mechanical and chemical)
mechanical digestion
(mastication) physical seperation of food, such as, chewing, cutting with knife,
chemical digestion
molecular knives/forks, workings of the digestive enzymes, breaking down of molecules into smallest particals. This is site where STARCH DIGESTION BEGINS (CHEMICAL DIGESTION IN THE MOUTH)
What are salivary glands and what do they produce?
-exocrine glands, which are glands w/ a duct
-produce/secrete saliva
What is saliva made up of?
Water/mucous/enzymes
what are 3 pairs of salivary glands?
parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands
parotid glands
largest, produce greatest amount of saliva, located near the ear
submandibular gland
underneath tongue with openings into mouth
sublingual glands
underneath tongue with openings into mouth
buccal glands
near upper pharynx/ back part of mouth
what are functions of saliva?
secretion of amylase (ptyalin)- a digestive enzyme.
amylase
the enzyme that accounts for the hydrolysis (or digestion) of amylose
esophagus
passageway from the mouth to the stomach. Not much goes on here in terms of digestion
esophageal mucosa
stratified squamous epithelium which lines esophagus
gastroesophageal sphincter
located between end of esophagus and beginning of stomach
cardiac sphincter
regulates cardiac orfice
what is another name for sphincter
valve
gastric mucosa
lining of the wall of the stomach comprise of simple columnar epithelium. Contains rugae
rugae
folds in stomach which allow for expansion
The stomach is a major site for both ____ and ____ digestion
mechanical, chemical
pepsin
one of leading enzymes brings about digestion of protein
rugae
folds in stomach which allow for expansion
The stomach is a major site for both ____ and ____ digestion
mechanical, chemical
pepsin
one of leading enzymes brings about digestion of protein
pyloric sphincter
strongest, thickest, spinchter pumps fluid from stomach into small intestine
gastric pits
crater-like openings in the wall of the stomach
gastric glands
clusters of cells that produce gastric juice
gastric juice
collection of secretions from gastric glands
mucus
very alkaline ( basic) to offset stomach acids. Helps to prevent self digestion
pepsinogen
the inactive form of pepsin. HCL is important in the activation of pepsinogen to pepsin
instrinsic factor
secreted into stomach, involved in absorbtion of vitamin b12 helps it to survive acidic environment of the stomach.
gastrin
a hormone which is released into the blood stream, tells rest of stomach to increase motility (movement) or perystalis
chyme
exits tomach through pyloric sphincter into the very first part of the small intetine called the dueodenum
gastroenteric relfex
involutary (automatic) the stomach is sending word to the small intestine. caused by stomach distention. It increases secretion and peristaltic activity.
enterogastric reflex
automatic means of the small intestine communicating with the tomach saying to slow down things are being moved into the small intestine too quickly. reflex helps to control the pyloric sphincter
Small intestine
-major site for chemical digestion and nutrient absorbtion
-longest part of the alimentary canal
intestinal mucosa
lining of small intestine comprise of simple columnar epithelium.
functions of the small intestine
1. duodenum: recieves chyme form the stomach by way of the pyloric spinchter valve.
2. duodenum: recieves secretions from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
3. completes digestion of carbs, dietary fats, and proteins
4. absorbtion of nutrients
5. contain villi and microvilli which help with absorbtion and release of enzymes
6. directs residue to large intestine by way of the illeocecal sphincyer
where does digestion of dietary fats begin/end?
small intestine
what is anothe name for microvilli
brush border
duodenum
-recieves chyme
-recieves secretions from the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
hepatopancreatic ampulla
formed by common bile duct and pancreatic duct
common bile duct
formed by common hepatic duct and systic duct
villi(villus)
contains capillaries, lacteal, and microvilli (brush border).
lacteal
where you see absorbtion of lipids, found with villi
plicae circulares
folds in duodenum, acts as a drain
jejunum
continuation of digestion and absortion occurs here
ileum
absortion is a critical feature here. the presence of more lymphatic tissue starts to show or peyers patches (lympatic nodules) .
peyers patches
lymphatic nodules located in the later ileum they keep in check for bacteria and help w/ localized immune responses.
goblet cells
important to release of mucus, part of simple columnar epithelium
brunners glands (duodenum)
clusters of cells producing/secreting a fairly alkaline mucus.
intestinal juice
a collection of secretion whose production takes place in the crypts of lieberkuhn
crypts of lieberkuhn
clusters of cells producing a # of secretions
intestinal amylase
digestion of starch to glucose
lipases
digestion of fats/lipids to glycerol/fatty acids
proteases
digestion of protein to amino acids
sucrose
digests sucrose to 2 monosccharide (glucose and galactose)
lactase
digests lactose to 2 monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)
maltase
enzyme that digests maltose into 2 monosaccharides (glucose and glucose)
secretin
a hormone that says to secrete to its targets, its primary target are cells within the pancreas.Tells to send bicarbinate ions and PH
cholecystokinin(CCK)
another means by which small intestine can communicate with pancreas to release pancreatic enzymes. produced/secreted in duodenum
enterokinase
enzyme mixed in with chyme that when activated becomes tripsine which digest protein. Produced by linings of the walls of the small intestine
enterogastron
a hormone that inhibits gastric motility (or tells stomach to slow down) its target cells primarly back in wall of stomach. it's secreted into the blood stream
bile production
takes place in liver, but is needed within small intestine. bile aides in emulsification of dietary fats or the physical separation of lipids which helps increase surface area
hepatic portal vein
where liver derives most of its blood which is loaded with nutrients
lobes of liver are divided into smaller compartments called _____
lobules
hepatocytes
lobules are comprise of these cells which are liver cells.
sinusoids
large blood filled spaces between lobules in liver. Similar to cappillaries
kupffers cells
real good at phagocytosis help to defend liver against infectious agents
what is bile comprised of?
primarily water, cholesterol, bile salts, bile pigments (BILIVERDIN/BILIRUBIN)
emulsification of fat
done by bile salts which help to seperate fat
gallbladder
concentrates/stores/releases bile into the cystic duct
cholecytokinin (CCK) workings in the gall bladder
a hormone that tells gallbladder to send bile to the small intestine.
sphincter of oddi
helps to fill gallbladder, regulates passage from ampulla to the dueodenum
pancreas
-produces pancreatic juice with regard to digestion.
-provides both exocrine and endocrine functions
-produces and secretes substances into pancreatic duct/duodenum
acini
clusters of cells that go into the making of pancreatic juice
the bulk of pancreatic juice is made up of ____ _____
hydrolitic enzymes
what are the secretions of the pancreas?
1. pancreatic amylase
2. pancreatic lipases
3. pancreatic proteases
4. bicarbinate ions
5. tripsynogen
pancreatic amylase
helps to further process of stach digestion
large intestine
water absorption and the formation and elimination of feces takes place here.
cecum
very 1st part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix (lymphatic tissue)
worm-like part of intestine attatched to the cecum
colon
dividied into different segments, ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid.
right colic hepatic flexure
where ascending colon turns to form transverse colon
left colin splenic flexure
where transverse colon turns to form descending colon
teniae coli
longitudinal bands of smooth muscle that even at rest are partially contracted which causes puffy bands/ distinct out pockets of wall of small intestine known as haustra.
rectum
formed by the last part of the colon
anal canal
last part of the rectum
internal sphincyer
comprised of smooth muscle, under involuntary control, and is a part of sacral reflex (parasympathetic)
external sphincter
comprised of skeletal muscle, under voluntary control and somatic motor control
during glomerular filtration what two things are not filtered out?
proteins and blood cells bc they are too big
functions of the urinary system
1. urine production, and the excretion of wastes such as urea and creatinine
2. regulation of extracellular fluid compostion/ volume
3. regulation of solute/electrolyte balance
4. regulation of acid/base balance (PH)
5. regulation of blood pressure
6. production of erythropoeitin
renin
an enzyme that helps in the conversion of angiotensin
angiotensinogen
INACTIVE form of angiotensin it's activated by renin
angiotensin
vasoconstrictor narrows specific arterioles
CORTEX of kidneys
where much for filtration in the kidneys takes place
MEDULLA of kidneys
collects and holds the filtered urine
nephrons
microscopic structures or filtering units of the kidneys. THe pt of intersection between the circulatory system and the urinary system
glomerulus
a ball of tightly coiled cappillaries where filtration takes place
afferent arterioles
brings blood into the glomerulus
efferent arterioles
takes blood away from glomerulus
golmerular capsule (bowman's capsule)
very 1st part of vessels that collect filtrate
proximal convoluted tubule
near site of filtration. filtrate moves through here
descending limb (branch) of the loop of henle
branch moving downand moving filtrate in the down direction in the loop of henle
ascending limb (branch) of loop of henle
filtrate moves up the loop of henle. Eventually starts to widen to form distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
filtrate moves through this area and then drains into the collecting tubule
collecting tubule
last part of tubes that collect filtrate from nephrons. When reaches this point filtrate is then referred to as urine.
reabsorption (peritubular) cappilarries
reabsorb substances back out of filtrate and recycle back into the blood
renal processes
must occur for elimination of metabloic wastes
these processes include:
1.) Glomerular filtration (blood -> filtrate)
2. tubular reabsorption (filtrate -> blood)
3. tubular secretion (blood -> filtrate)
podocytes
help to adjust size of pores
glomerular filtration
formation of filtrate/ corticol nephrons takes place
net filtration pressure (NFP)
the driving force behind filtration. pressure of hydrostratic (water) / cappilary blood pressure. ??? brandon look this up in ur notes?
glomerular capsule
The cup-shaped proximal end of the renal tubule that surrounds the glomerulus
glomerular filtration rate (gfr)
120-125 mL/min or
180L/day
does NFP determine the GFR?
yes within physiologic limits
renal corpuscle
comprised of glomerulus/ bowmans capsule. its a functional region where circulatory and urinary systems intersect.
tubular reabsorption
a very selecive process where only certain things are being brought backin. those things include: water, glucose, sodium ions, electrolytes, vitamins, and lipids.
tubular secretion
means by which we can get rid of excess items
an excess of potassium ions affects what?
cardiac muscle contraction
too much hydrogen ions can affect what?
ph
what are 3 major events that contribute to the formation of urine?
1. filtration
2. reabsorption
3. secretion
proximal convoluted tubule aka pct
1. where majority of reabsortion takes place
2. cells are good at (pinocytosis) drinkin here
3. sodium. chloride ions go out of filtrate and into the blood
4. glucose/amino acids/ vitamins/ most electrolytes are also reabsorbed back into blood
5. water is reabosrbed osmoticlly
6. volumeof glomerular filtrate is reduced 65-75 percent
ascending limb of the loop of henle
1.segment most impermeable to water
2. sodium ion/ chrloide ion reabsortion continues
3. minimal water reabsorption
4. tubular fluid concentration reduced
5. tubular fluid volume unchanged
descensing limb of loop of henle
1. water reabsortion continues
2. tubular fluid volume is reduced
3. tubular fluid concentraton (solutes) increased
distal convoluted tubule (dct)
1. under direct control of aldosterone
2. reabsortion of sodium ion (from filtrate back into the blood)
3. secretion of potassium ions (excess)
4. secretion of hydrogen (ph)
collecting tubule
1. last place adjustments can be made to filtrate
2. under control of anti diuretic hormone
3. tubular fluid volume is reduce (major homestatic mechanism)
4. tubular fluid concentration increased
wht is amount of urine put out each day
1-2 liters/day
anti diuretic hormone (vaspressin)
opposes wate rloss. makes walls of collecting tubules more permeable so it can go from filtrate back into blood