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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
decisions regarding the ___ and ___ ____ are made in the central nervous system
brain and spinal chord
what does the somatic devision of the peripheral nervous system regulate?
skeletal muscle contraction (voluntary and involuntary)
what does the autonotic division of the peripheral nervous system regulate?
cardiac and smooth muscle *involuntary*
sympathetic
prepare body for action
parasympathetic
do opposite of sympathetic helps to return to resting levels of function
cell body
nucleus of neurons
axon
carries info away from neuron
synapse
a space between neighboring neurons
dendrite
branches off cell body that pick up and recieve info
synaptic transmission
to get a message accross the synapse of 2 cells

Process:
1. Presynaptic membrane where is begins which is before the synapse
2. diffusion of neurotransmitter
3. then goes to the post synaptic membrane which is the reciever cell of the neurotransmitter and is after the synapse
4. re-absortion/ destruction or neurotransmitter
adrenergic fibers
fibers in the sympathetic nervous system that release norepinepherine
cholinergic fibers
Fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system that release acetylcholine.
sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system
T1-L2
anatomic name thoracolumbar division
norepinepherine (NE)
released by post ganglionic fibers. # A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that also acts as a neurotransmitter for nerve cells. Part of the fight-or-flight response.
ganglion
a mass of nerve cells serving as a center from which nerve impulses are transmitted in/out of.
divergence
to spread out info and send to multiple destinations
adrenal medulla
where norepinepherine and epinepherine are produced
axon hillock
works as on/off switch
gray matter
involved in decision making
white matter
conducts the decisions made int he gray matter
parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
aka craniosacral division
does opposite of sympathetic
acetylcholine
released in the parasympathetic division in the post ganglionic level by cholinergic fibers
TYPES OF RECEPTORS IN SYMPATHETIC?
PARASYMPATHETIC?
SYMP - ALPHA BETA
PARASYMP - NICOTNIC AND MUSURINIC
GANGLIA IS NEAR OR WITHIN THE WALL OF THE ___ ____
target organ
hypothalamus
within the diencephalon (thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus). located just about the pituitary
parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
aka craniosacral division
does opposite of sympathetic
acetylcholine
released in the parasympathetic division in the post ganglionic level by cholinergic fibers
TYPES OF RECEPTORS IN SYMPATHETIC?
PARASYMPATHETIC?
SYMP - ALPHA BETA
PARASYMP - NICOTNIC AND MUSURINIC
GANGLIA IS NEAR OR WITHIN THE WALL OF THE ___ ____
target organ
hypothalamus location
within the diencephalon (thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus). located just about the pituitary
hypothalamus functions
1. heart rate/blood pressure
2. thermoregulation
3. hunger/thirst
4. water balance
5. emotions via limbic system
6. releasing hormones
exocrine
duct
endocrine
ductless
hormone characterisitcs
1. chemical regulators of biological function
2. homeostasis
3. secretion response to environmental stimuli
4. exert actions w/i target cells
5. specificity
upregulation
increase in # of receptors
downregulation
decrease # of receptors
cylic amp
example of an extracellular secondary messenger
steroid hormones
work in the nucleus of cell effecting dna
humoral
blood chemistry
hormonal stimuli
release of anterior pituitary hormones
negative feedback
means by which the body regulates release of chemicals. or inhibits the source
insulin and calcitonin react to what
blood level
aldosterone reacts to?
sodium level
neuroendocrine function
means part of cns, uses neurotransmitters, and uses and secretes hormones
anterior pituitary
-larger portion of two divisions
- aka adenhypophysis
-grandular part of pituitary
hypophaseal portal system
communication by way of blood vessels between hypothalamus and the pituitary
what are the 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)
-hypothalamus dictates when the hormone is released
-targets the liver
-AKA somtropin or somotrophic hormone
-stimulates growth/ protein systnthesis and is important to healing
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
-aka thyrotropin/thyrotropic hormone
-hormone that stimulates the thyroid or tells it to speed up
adrenocorticotopic hormone (ACTH)
-aka corticotropin or corticotrophic hormone
- stimulates the cortex or the adrenal glands when told to do so by the hypothalamaus
-involved with physical stress, illness, disease, emotional stress
follicle-stimulating hormone (TSH)
-aka gonadotropin or gonadotropic hormone
-gets word to the gonads to generate more reproductive or sex cells
gametogenesis
the making of sex cells
lutenizing hormone (LH)
is a gonadotropin and is responsible for the formation of the corpus leteum
female Lutenizing Hormone
-produces ovarian estrogen
-supports ovulation
male lutenizing hormone aka Intersitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
found within the testes produces testosterone
prolactin (PRL)
stimulates the production of milk
What are the posterior pituitary hormone?
1.oxytocin
2. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
the hormones of the posterior pituitary are produced by the ______ but stored and released from _____ _______
hypothalamus, posterior pituitary
oxytocin (OT)
-stimulates uterine smooth muscle to bring about birth
-works by postive feedback mechanism
-helps to also stimulate mammary gland to help eject milk.
anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
-aka vasopressin
-allows for the retention of water loss
-targets cells within the kidneys
-helps kidneys with water reaabsorption
Thyroid Gland hormones
1.thyroxin (t4)
2. triiodyotherine (t3)
3. thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin)
thyroxin (t4)
-produced by follicular cells
-called t4 because it has 4 atoms of iodine
-produces/generates heat
-regulated metabolism
triiodothyrine (t3)
-produced by follicular cells
-calld t3 bc it has three atoms of iodine
-produces/generates heat and regulates metabolism
thyrocalcitonin
-aka calcitonin
-maintains blood calcium levels
-produced by parafollicular cells
-targets osteoblasts
parathyroid gland
-responsible for the production and secretion of PTH (parathyroid hormone)
parathyroid hormone
-aka parathormone
-helps maintain proper levels of calclium in the blood
-primary target is osteoclasts
-has a humoral response
-is similar to a withdrawal slip
adrenal (suprarenal) gland
-attatches to the top of the kidney
-comprised of the adrenal medulla and cortex.
adrenal cortex
outeredge of the adrenal gland. responsible for the production of many steroid hormones which are made from cholesterol.
corticosteroid
steroid hormone produced by cells of the adrenal cortex. important to healing process and physical stress
zona glomerulosa
-produces mineralocorticoids
-thinnest of 3 layers
mineralocorticoids
regulate minerals in body
aldosterone
a steroid hormone that regulates sodium and potassium levels, leading member of the mineralocorticoid family
zona fasciculata
-produces glucocorticoids
-middle layer
glucocorticoids
help body to prepare for emergency situations
cortisol
leading member of the glucocorticoid family important to bodys ability to deal with physical stress
gluconeogenesis
production of new glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as amino acids and fatty acids
lipolysis
breaking down of lipids to be able to release fatty acids
zona reticularis
-innermost of the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex
-produces gonadocorticoids
gonadocorticoids
steroid hormones that mimic the effects of gonads
adrenal medulla
the internal part of the adrenal gland comprided of nerve tissue
chromaffrin cells
highly specialized neurons without dendrites or axons
what two hormones are produced and released into the blood by way of the adrenal medulla?
norepinepherine
epinepherine
chatacholemine family
includes: dopamine, norepinepherine, and epinepherine
pancreas
-has both exocrine and edocrine functions
-95 percent involved with digestion
-contains islets of langerhans
islets of langerhans
clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas. produce insulin and glucagon
insulin
produced by beta cells and is released by beta cells typically by humoral stimuli
what are effects of insulin
-faciliated diffusion
-increase glycolysis
-increase glycogenesis
-increase lypogenesis
-increase protein synthetis
glucagon
produced by the alpha cells of the islets of langerhans. primary effect is hyperglycemic affect.
effects if glucagon
-increase in glycogenolysis
-increase in gluconeogenesis
glycogenolysis
the splitting of glycogen in the blood
gluconeogensis
the creation of new glucose
ovaries
produces hormones estrogen and progesterone. critically important to the female reproductive system and pregnancy
testes
produce testosterone
pineal gland
-located in the epithalamus
-produces: melatonin, serotonin, norepinpherine, and histamine
melatonin
contributes to sleep patters
serotonin
has to do with mood
histamine
maintains alertness
thymus gland
located between the chest and sternum. imporant to the maintenance of the immune system. produces thymosin
thymosin
have effect on white blood cells and stimulates their development
t-cell
is a thymus-cell, a type of white blood cell