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### 20 Cards in this Set

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 What is the summation operator? Is a symbols used in statistics that represents "the sum of." Independent Variable Variables that the researcher controls or manipulates in accordance with the purpose of the investigation. Dependent Variable Measure of the effect of the independent variable. Measurement Process of assigning numbers to characteristics according to a defined rule. Nominal Scale Classifies objects into categories based on some defined characteristic. (Example: Gender) Ordinal Scale Similar to the nominal process except categories are identified and numbers are assigned. Example: grades Interval Scale Have all the properties of those measured on an ordinal scale. However, the differences between levels of categories on any part of the scale reflect equal differences in the characteristic measured. (Also called an equal unit scale) Ratio Scale As the same properties of the interval scale plus a known, or true, zero point which reflects the absence of the characteristic measured. Qualitative Variables Nominal or ordinal measurements Quantitative Variables Interval or ratio measurements Sample A subset of a population (Only members of a sample are included in a research study) Parameter A measure of a characteristic of a population. Statistic A descriptive measure of a sample. Descriptive Statistics Used to classify and summarized numerical data. Inferential Statistics Consist of procedures for making generalizations about a population by studying a sample from that population. Coding Data Involves assigning numerical values to nonnumerica categories. Example Gender - Female = 0, Male = 1 Stem and Leaf Displays Uselful in exploring distributions of data Frequency Distribution An arrangement of values that shows the number of times a give score or group of scores occurs. Stem and Leaf Displays Useful strategy for exploring distributions of data Class Intervals Intervals of scores in a frequency distribution derived by combining several scores into an interval, thus reducing the number of categories.